oroonoko test

<TEI xmlns=”http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0″>
<title>Oroonoko<note type=”gloss” Oroonoko obviously echoes the name of the Orinoco river, one of the largest rivers in South America, where most of Behn’s story is set. But it also, echoes, slightly more distantly, a name like “Oroondates,” the hero in La Calprenede’s heroic romance Cassandra, published in installments between 1642 and 1645, and thereby testifies to Behn’s desire to affiliate her “true history” with that popular form of a generation ago</note>. or, The royal slave : a true history / by Mrs. A. Behn.</title>
<author>Behn, Aphra, 1640-1689.</author>
<edition>This text has been edited from the first edition of 1688.

<publisher>Open Anthology of Literature</publisher>
<pubPlace>Charlottesville, VA</pubPlace>
<date>February 2016</date>

<p>This edited version of the text has been created by students and faculty at the University of Virginia. Anyone is free to use this text for any non-commercial reason.</p>

<title>Oroonoko, or, The royal slave : a true history / by Mrs. A. Behn.</title>
<author>Behn, Aphra, 1640-1689.</author>
<extent>[14], 239 [i.e. 223] p. </extent>
<publisher>Printed for Will. Canning …,</publisher>
<pubPlace>London :</pubPlace>


<language ident=”eng”>eng</language>
<keywords scheme=”http://authorities.loc.gov/”>
<term>Slavery — Suriname — Fiction — Romance — Behn, Aphra.</term>

<text xml:lang=”eng”>
<div class=”editorial”> When she published <emph rend=”italic”>Oroonoko</emph> in 1688, Aphra Behn created one of the foundational myths of her period and the century that followed. The story of the noble African prince tricked into slavery resonated powerfully with people in the English-speaking world for generations. This was even the case for those who never read Behn’s book. Behn’s work was adapted into a play entitled <emph rend=”italic”>Oroonoko: A Tragedy</emph> by Thomas Southerne in 1695, and that version of the story–one that differs in key ways from Behn’s original–was one of the mainstays of the theater in Britain into the nineteenth century. Oroonoko was, like Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe or Jonathan Swift’s Lemuel Gulliver, a character who was introduced in a work of fiction in the decades around 1700 who would go on to have a long life outside the pages of the work in which he originally appeared.

<a href=”http://virginia-anthology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Aphra_Behn_by_Peter_Lely_ca._1670.jpg” rel=”attachment wp-att-1960″><img class=”wp-image-1960 size-large” src=”http://virginia-anthology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Aphra_Behn_by_Peter_Lely_ca._1670-858×1024.jpg” alt=”Aphra Behn, as painted by Peter Lely, around 1670 [Wikimedia Commons]” width=”840″ height=”1003″ /></a> Aphra Behn, as painted by Peter Lely, around 1670 [Wikimedia Commons]

<emph rend=”italic”>Oroonoko</emph> is a work of fiction, though it claims to be something else, a “true history” written by an eyewitness to at least some of the events that the narrative describes. The overkill in the formulation of “true History” (as opposed to “false History”?) betrays the urgency of Behn’s desire to have the reader take this story seriously, to treat it not as a fairy tale but as a realistic depiction of heroism in the face of cruel exploitation. That the hero is African, the exploiters English, and the setting South America makes the message particularly tricky to figure out for modern readers. Many of the story’s specific details are true and can be verified. England did try to colonize Surinam in the middle of the seventeenth century,dividing the land into plantations and attempting to grow tobacco, sugar, and coffee. Several of the British men who appear in Behn’s work, such as William Byam, John Trefry,and James Bannister, really existed. Byam was the Deputy Governor of Surinam, exercising day-to-day control over the colony, a role that had been delegated to him by his patron, Francis, Lord Willoughby, who owned the patent rights to the colony and supervised Byam from his home base in Barbados. Trefry was Willoughby’s agent and seems to have run a plantation on his behalf. We know that there was a James Bannister in Surinam during the period in which the story is set; he is recorded as having, with Byam, negotiated the surrender of Surinam to the Dutch in 1667. There was a slave-trading “castle” called Coromantien or Cormantin in west Africa, so named by the English traders who built it in the 1630s and 40s after the local name for the region; its ruins can still be visited in the modern nation of Ghana. Research also bears many details in <emph rend=”italic”>Oroonoko</emph> about geography, the slave trade, and the natural environment of Surinam. Behn’s story is filled with with realistic descriptions of the landscape and animals resident in that part of South America, including what might be the first description of an electric eel in an English text. Behn probably derived some of this information from traveller’s accounts, but may also have visited Surinam herself in the early 1660s. There is no way of proving this, but in her biography <emph rend=”italic”>The Secret Life of Aphra Behn</emph>, by far the best-researched modern account of Behn’s life, Janet Todd supports the narrator’s claim to having been in Surinam, arguing that that Behn visited the colony in 1663, when she was in her early twenties. Again, there is no documentary evidence that would prove this one way or the other, but if Behn did visit Surinam, many of the specific details of the story might be the result of Behn’s first hand experience, remembered twenty-five years later.But much of <emph rend=”italic”> Oroonoko </emph> that cannot be true.There is no evidence that Behn’s father was designated to be the Deputy Governor of the colony, nor that he died at sea, as the story claims. The narrator’s descriptions of the African court are entirely made up, and read like they were derived more from medieval romances and Orientalist writings of the period than documentary or first-hand evidence. Most important, there is no evidence of an enslaved African prince leading a slave rebellion in Surinam and then being executed. “Oroonoko” is not an African name, but one derived from the name of the Orinoco river, which runs through the modern nations of Colombia and Venezuela, both to the north of Surinam. The hero who bears that name is a fiction, an idealized warrior and prince who embodies the virtues of kingship as Behn and her age understood them.The long gap between the events depicted in the story and its publication is significant, because it seems clear that Behn intended this story as a message of sorts to her contemporaries. By 1688, Britain had long since lost the Surinam colony; it was in effect exchanged for the city of New Amsterdam as part of the peace treaty ending the Second Anglo-Dutch war in 1667. New Amsterdam was renamed New York City in honor of the Duke of York, the brother of Charles II, and it is easy to see now that Britain got the better end of the deal. But that was not so clear in 1688, particularly to a staunch monarchist and supporter of the Stuart dynasty like Behn. In <emph rend=”italic”>Oroonoko</emph> the loss of Surinam seems the object of great lament. More importantly, in 1688, Britain was in the process of deposing the former Duke of York, now King James II, exiling him in favor of his daughter Mary and her husband the Dutch prince William of Orange (Mary and William were Protestants, and James II had made clear his intentions to return England to the Catholic church, a move that provoked key leaders in Parliament and military, fearful of a return to civil war, to stage what amounted to a coup d’etat). In that context, readers were clearly being invited to see Oroonoko as an analogue for James II, and even Charles I, James’s father and the martyred Stuart king who had been executed in 1649. Like the Stuarts, Oroonoko is an extraordinary person, a divinely-anointed monarch whose glory is immediately apparent to those who see him, and there is no human system of justice that could rightly try and execute him. With the Stuart monarchy hanging in the balance at the tine of <emph rend=”italic”>Oroonoko’s</emph> writing and publication, Behn’s story reaches back to the past to offer a coded warning about the consequences of killing a divinely-anointed ruler. And it seems more than a casual coincidence that English treachery was succeeded by Dutch conquest; the analogy between the situation in Surinam in the 1660s and that in Britain in 1688 would not have been lost on her contemporary readers.

Given that context, it is hard to see Behn’s story as the anti-slavery fable that readers have often wanted it to be. During the abolitionist period in the early nineteenth century Behn’s story was invoked by anti-slavery writers as an important precursor. But there is nothing in Behn’s story that condemns the institution of slavery. Even Oroonoko has slaves, and in this respect he is simply doing what a warrior prince like himself would have done since antiquity, claiming as slaves the subjects of opponents that he had defeated on the battlefield. Slavery as the consequence of war had, according to the thinking of many early modern writers, been long practiced and even had Biblical sanction. Where the English men who enslaved Oroonoko had gone wrong, by this logic, was in turning this ancient institution into a modern commercial venture. Rather than defeating Oroonoko and his men in battle, the English ship captain tricks them by making them drunk, kidnaps, and then sells them. The problem is not simply that the Africans here are enslaved; it is that they are degraded by being made into a commodity. There is a sense in which a prince like Oroonoko simply cannot live in such a world, and Behn wants her readers to recognize that this African was a far more civilized person than the English colonists who duped, enslaved, hunted, tortured, and killed him. Behn’s hostility towards many of her fellow Britons reminds us that the wounds of the English Civil War of the 1640s were not fully healed almost four decades later. In her unsympathetic portraits of the unnamed English captain and Bannister, for example, Behn reminds us that in the 1660s the English colonies became a place where men whose sympathies had been with the Parliamentary side found refuge. Such men who had been willing to kill one king would not hesitate to violate the long-standing customs around slavery to capture, sell, and murder another one.

Aphra Behn’s <emph rend=”italic”>Oroonoko</emph> combines archetypal figures with precise circumstantial detail, establishing a new kind of hybrid of mythology, reportage, travelogue, and memoir. In so doing, she was anticipating and also working to create the terms under which the English novel would ascend to prominence and prestige in the century ahead. On its own, <emph rend=”italic”> Oroonoko </emph> is one of the most interesting and complex works of fiction in English in the entire period.

<strong>About this edition</strong>

This edition was produced by the students in ENEC 8600, Eighteenth-Century Fiction, at the University of Virginia in Fall 2015:
Malcolm Bare, Ankita Chakrabarti, Neal Curtis, Alison Glassie, Robert Hoile, Rebecca Rosenblatt, Simon Sarkodie, Khristian Smith, Michael VanHoose, and Alissa Winn. It is derived from the edition prepared by the Text Creation Partnership; the students edited, annotated, and proofread the text. We have included page numbers in brackets, which refer to the page numbers of the first edition of 1688.

<a href=”http://virginia-anthology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Behn_Oroonoko_title_page.1688.jpg” rel=”attachment wp-att-2005″>
<img class=”aligncenter size-full wp-image-2005″ src=”http://virginia-anthology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Behn_Oroonoko_title_page.1688.jpg” alt=”Behn_Oroonoko_title_page.1688″ width=”221″ height=”361″ /></a>

<div type=”title_page”>
<p>OROONOKO: OR, THE Royal Slave.
<p>By Mrs. A. BEHN.</p>
<hi>LONDON,</hi> Printed for <hi>Will. Canning,</hi> at his Shop in the <hi>Temple-Cloysters.</hi> 1688.</p>
<div type=”dedication”>
<head>TO THE Right Honourable THE Lord <hi>MAITLAND.</hi>
<salute>My Lord,</salute>
<p>Since the World is grown so Nice and Critical upon Dedications, and will Needs be Judging the Book, by the Wit of the Patron; we ought, with a great deal of Circumspection, to chuse a Person against whom there can be no <pb/>Exception; and whose Wit, and Worth, truly Merits all that one is capable of saying upon that Occasion.</p>
<p>The most part of Dedications are charg’d with Flattery; and if the World knows a Man has some Vices, they will not allow one to speak of his Virtues. This, my Lord, is for want of thinking Rightly; if Men wou’d consider with Reason, they wou’d have another sort of Opinion, and Esteem of Dedications; and wou’d believe almost every Great Man has enough to make him Worthy of all that can be said of him there. My Lord, a Picture-drawer, when he intends to make a good Picture, essays the Face many Ways, and in <pb/>many Lights, before he begins; that he may chuse, from the several turns of it, which is most Agreeable, and gives it the best Grace; and if there be a Scar, an ungrateful Mole, or any little Defect, they leave it out; and yet make the Picture extreamly like: But he who has the good Fortune to draw a Face that is exactly Charming in all its Parts and Features, what Colours or Agreements can be added to make it Finer? All that he can give is but its due; and Glories in a Piece whose Original alone gives it its Perfection. An ill Hand may diminish, but a good Hand cannot augment its Beauty. A Poet is a Painter <pb/>in his way; he draws to the Life, but in another kind; we draw the Nobler part, the Soul and Mind; the Pictures of the Pen shall out-last those of the Pencil, and even Worlds themselves. ‘Tis a short Chronicle of those Lives that possibly wou’d be forgotten by other Historians, or lye neglected there, however deserving an immortal Fame; for Men of eminent Parts are as Exemplary as even Monarchs themselves; and Virtue is a noble Lesson to be learn’d, and ’tis by Comparison we can Judge and Chuse. ‘Tis by such illustrious Presidents<note type=”gloss” Precedents </note>, as your Lordship, the World can be Better’d and Refin’d; when a great part of the lazy Nobi<pb/>lity shall, with Shame, behold the admirable Accomplishments of a Man so Great, and so Young.</p>
<p>Your Lordship has Read innumerable Volumes of Men, and Books; not Vainly for the gust of Novelty, but Knowledge, excellent Knowledge: Like the industrious Bee, from every Flower you return Laden with the precious Dew, which you are sure to turn to the Publick Good. You hoard no one Perfection, but lay it all out in the Glorious Service of your Religion and Country; to both which you are a useful and necessary Honour: They both want such Supporters; and ’tis only Men of so elevated Parts,<pb/> and fine Knowledge; such noble Principles of Loyalty and Religion this Nation Sighs for. Where shall we find a Man so Young, like St. <hi>Augustine,</hi> in the midst of all his Youth and Gaiety, Teaching the World divine Precepts, true Notions of Faith, and Excellent Morality, and, at the same time, be also a perfect Pattern of all that accomplish a Great Man? You have, my Lord, all that refin’d Wit that Charms, and the Affability that Obliges; a Generosity that gives a Lustre to your Nobility; that Hospitality, and Greatness of Mind, that ingages the World; and that admirable Conduct, that so <pb/>well Instructs it. Our Nation ought to regret and bemoan their Misfortunes, for not being able to claim the Honour of the Birth of a Man who is so fit to serve his Majesty, and his Kingdoms, in all Great and Publick Affairs: And to the Glory of your Nation be it spoken, it produces more considerable Men, for all fine Sence, Wit, Wisdom, Breeding, and Generosity (for the generality of the Nobility) than all other Nations can Boast; and the Fruitfulness of your Virtues sufficiently make amends for the Barrenness of your Soil: Which however cannot be incommode to your Lordship; since your Quality, and the <pb/>Veneration that the Commonalty naturally pay their Lords, creates a flowing Plenty there—that makes you Happy. And to compleat your Happiness, my Lord, Heaven has blest you with a Lady, to whom it has given all the Graces, Beauties, and Virtues of her Sex; all the Youth, Sweetness of Nature; of a most illustrious Family; and who is a most rare Example to all Wives of Quality, for her eminent Piety, Easiness, and Condescention; and as absolutely merits Respect from all the World, as she does that Passion and Resignation she receives from your Lordship; and which is, on her part, with so much Ten<pb/>derness return’d. Methinks your tranquil Lives are an Image of the new Made and Beautiful Pair in Paradise: And ’tis the Prayers and Wishes of all, who have the Honour to know you, that it may Eternally so continue, with Additions of all the Blessings this World can give you.</p>
<p>My Lord, the Obligations I have to some of the Great Men of your Nation, particularly to your Lordship, gives me an Ambition of making my Acknowledgments, by all the Opportunities I can; and such humble Fruits, as my Industry produces, I lay at your Lordships Feet. This is a <pb/>true Story, of a Man Gallant enough to merit your Protection; and, had he always been so Fortunate, he had not made so Inglorious an end: The Royal Slave I had the Honour to know in my Travels to the other World; and though I had none above me in that Country, yet I wanted power to preserve this Great Man. If there be any thing that seems Romantick, I beseech your Lordship to consider, these Countries do, in all things, so far differ from ours, that they produce unconceivable Wonders; at least, they appear so to us, because New and Strange. What I have mention’d I have taken-care shou’d <pb/>be Truth, let the Critical Reader judge as he pleases. ‘Twill be no Commendation to the Book, to assure your Lordship I writ it in a few Hours, though it may serve to Excuse some of its Faults of Connexion; for I never rested my Pen a Moment for Thought: ‘Tis purely the Merit of my Slave that must render it worthy of the Honour it begs; and the Author of that of Subscribing herself,</p>
<salute>My Lord,</salute>
Your Lordship’s most oblig’d and obedient Servant,
<signed>A. BEHN.</signed>
<div type=”audio”>[soundcloud url=”https://api.soundcloud.com/playlists/232039842″ params=”auto_play=false&hide_related=false&show_comments=true&show_user=true&show_reposts=false&visual=true” width=”100%” height=”450″ iframe=”true” /]</div>
<div type=”text”>
<head>THE HISTORY OF THE <hi>Royal Slave.</hi>
<p>I do not pretend, in giving you the History of this <hi>Royal Slave,</hi> to entertain my Reader with the Adventures of a feign’d <hi>Hero,</hi> whose Life and Fortunes Fancy may manage at the Poets Pleasure; nor in relating the Truth, design to adorn it with any Accidents, but such as arriv’d in earnest to him: And it shall come <pb n=”2″/>simply into the World, recommended by its own proper Merits, and natural Intrigues; there being enough of Reality to support it, and to render it diverting, without the Addition of Invention.</p>
<p>I was my self an Eye-Witness<note type=”gloss”> Not only one who has observed something firsthand, but in a legal sense, one who is “able to describe or testify to it.” (OED) </note>, to a great part, of what you will find here set down; and what I cou’d not be Witness of, I receiv’d from the Mouth of the chief Actor in this History, the <hi>Hero</hi> himself, who gave us the whole Transactions of his Youth; and though I shall omit, for Brevity’s sake, a thousand little Accidents of his Life, which, however pleasant to us, where History was scarce, and Adventures very rare; yet might prove tedious and heavy to my Reader, in a World where he finds Diversions for every Minute,<pb n=”3″/> new and strange: But we who were perfectly charm’d with the Character of this great Man, were curious to gather every Circumstance of his Life.</p>
<p>The Scene of the last part of his Adventures lies in a Colony in <hi>America,</hi> called <hi>Surinam,</hi><note type=”gloss”> A colony neighbored by Brazil to the south and Guiana to the West. At the time of the action of the story, the colony was in British control, but it was lost to the Dutch shortly thereafter </note> in the <h >West-Indies.</hi>
<p>But before I give you the Story of this <hi>Gallant Slave,</hi> ’tis fit I tell you the manner of bringing them to these new <hi>Colonies;</hi> for those they make use of there, are not <hi>Natives</hi> of the place; for those we live with in perfect Amity, without daring to command ’em; but on the contrary, caress ’em with all the brotherly and friendly Affection in the World; trading with ’em for their Fish, Venison, Buffilo’s, Skins, and little Rarities; as Marmosets<note type=”gloss”> A particularly tiny species of monkey that is, indeed, about the size of a mouse. Notably adorable. </note>, a sort of <hi>Monkey</hi> as <pb n=”4″/>big as a Rat or Weesel, but of a marvellous and delicate shape, and has Face and Hands like an Humane Creature: and <hi>Cousheries,</hi><note type=”gloss”> It is not clear what kind of animal Behn is referring to here, but it probably a species of feline </note> a little Beast in the form and fashion of a Lion, as big as a Kitten; but so exactly made in all parts like that noble Beast, that it is it in <hi>Minature.</hi> Then for little <hi>Parakeetoes,</hi> great Parrots, <hi>Muckaws,</hi> and a thousand other Birds and Beasts of wonderful and surprizing Forms, Shapes, and Colours. For Skins of prodigious Snakes, of which there are some threescore Yards in length; as is the Skin of one that may be seen at His Majesty’s <hi>Antiquaries:</hi><note type=”gloss”> An “antiquary” was a collection of unusual and exotic items. Janet Todd suggests that this could be a reference to the museum of the Royal Society in London. The singular form “antiquary” could describe a collector of antiques or rare objects. </note> Where are also some rare Flies, of amazing Forms and Colours, presented to ’em by my self; some as big as my Fist, some less; and all of various Excellencies, such as Art <pb n=”5″/>cannot imitate. Then we trade for Feathers, which they order into all Shapes, make themselves little short Habits of ’em, and glorious Wreaths for their Heads, Necks, Arms and Legs, whose Tinctures are unconceivable. I had a Set of these presented to me, and I gave ’em to the King’s Theatre, and it was the Dress of the <hi>Indian Queen<note type=”gloss”> Here is an image of Anne Bracegirdle, performing in John Dryden’s play <hi>The Indian Queen,</hi> wearing the feathered headress referred to in this passage. Whether this headdress was the same one that Behn brought back to England from Surinam in the 1660s is impossible to know at this point. <a href=”http://virginia-anthology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Indianqueen.jpg” rel=”attachment wp-att-2005″>
<img class=”aligncenter size-full wp-image-2005″ src=”http://virginia-anthology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Indianqueen.jpg” alt=”Indianqueen.jpg” width=”220″ height=”300″/>(Folger Shakespeare Library)</note> infinitely admir’d by Persons of Quality; and were unimitable. Besides these, a thousand little Knacks, and Rarities in Nature, and some of Art; as their Baskets, Weapons, Aprons, <hi>&amp;c.</hi> We dealt with ’em with Beads of all Colours, Knives, Axes, Pins and Needles; which they us’d only as Tools to drill Holes<note type=”gloss”> Behn is describing the process of piercing ears and other parts of the body </note> with in their Ears, Noses and Lips, where they hang a great many little things; as long Beads, bits of Tin,<pb n=”6″/>Brass, or Silver, beat thin; and any shining Trincket. The Beads they weave into Aprons about a quarter of an Ell long, and of the same breadth; working them very prettily in Flowers of several Colours of Beads; which Apron they wear just before ’em, as <hi>Adam</hi> and <hi>Eve</hi> did the Fig-leaves; the Men wearing a long Stripe of Linen, which they deal with us for. They thread these Beads also on long Cotton-threads, and make Girdles to tie their Aprons to, which come twenty times, or more, about the Waste; and then cross, like a Shoulder-belt, both ways, and round their Necks, Arms and Legs. This Adornment, with their long black Hair, and the Face painted in little Specks or Flowers here and there, makes ’em a wonderful Figure to<pb n=”7″/> behold. Some of the Beauties which indeed are finely shap’d, as almost all are, and who have pretty Features, are very charming and novel; for they have all that is called Beauty, except the Colour, which is a reddish Yellow; or after a new Oiling, which they often use to themselves, they are of the colour of a new Brick, but smooth, soft and sleek. They are extream modest and bashful, very shy, and nice of being touch’d. And though they are all thus naked, if one lives for ever among ’em, there is not to be seen an indecent Action, or Glance; and being continually us’d to see one another so unadorn’d, so like our first Parents before the Fall, it seems as if they had no Wishes; there being nothing to heighten Curiosity, but all you can see, you<pb n=”8″/> see at once, and every Moment see; and where there is no Novelty, there can be no Curiosity. Not but I have seen a handsom young <hi>Indian,</hi> dying for Love of a very beautiful young <hi>Indian</hi> Maid; but all his Courtship was, to fold his Arms, pursue her with his Eyes, and Sighs were all his Language: While she, as if no such Lover were present; or rather, as if she desired none such, carefully guarded her Eyes from beholding him; and never approach’d him, but she look’d down with all the blushing Modesty I have seen in the most severe and cautious of our World. And these People represented to me an absolute <hi>Idea</hi> of the first State of Innocence, before Man knew how to sin: And ’tis most evident and plain, that simple Nature is the most harmless, inoffen<pb n=”9″/>sive and vertuous Mistress. ‘Tis she alone, if she were permitted, that better instructs the World, than all the Inventions of Man: Religion wou’d here but destroy that Tranquillity, they possess by Ignorance; and Laws wou’d but teach ’em to know Offence, of which now they have no Notion. They once made Mourning and Fasting for the Death of the <hi>English</hi> Governor, who had given his Hand to come on such a Day to ’em, and neither came, nor sent; believing, when once a Man’s Word was past, nothing but Death cou’d or shou’d prevent his keeping it: And when they saw he was not dead, they ask’d him, what Name they had for a Man who promis’d a thing he did not do? The Governor told them, Such a man was a <hi>Lyar,</hi> which<pb n=”10″/> was a Word of Infamy to a Gentleman. Then one of ’em reply’d, <hi>Governor, you are a Lyar, and guilty of that Infamy.</hi> They have a Native Justice, which knows no Fraud; and they understand no Vice, or Cunning, but when they are taught by the <hi>White Men.</hi> They have Plurality of Wives, which, when they grow old, they serve those that succeed ’em, who are young; but with a Servitude easie and respected; and unless they take Slaves in War, they have no other Attendants.</p>
<p>Those on that <hi>Continent</hi> where I was, had no King; but the oldest War-Captain was obey’d with great Resignation.</p>
<p>A War-Captain is a Man who has lead them on to Battel with Conduct, and Success; of whom I shall have Occasion to speak<pb n=”11″/> more hereafter, and of some other of their Customs and Manners, as they fall in my way.</p>
<p>With these People, as I said, we live in perfect Tranquillity, and good Understanding, as it behooves us to do; they knowing all the places where to seek the best Food of the Country, and the Means of getting it; and for very small and unvaluable Trifles, supply us with what ’tis impossible for us to get; for they do not only in the Wood, and over the <hi>Sevana’s,</hi> in Hunting, supply the parts of Hounds, by swiftly scouring through those almost impassable places; and by the meer Activity of their Feet, run down the nimblest Deer, and other eatable Beasts: But in the water, one wou’d think they were Gods of the Rivers, or Fellow-Citizens of the <pb n=”12″/>Deep; so rare an Art they have in Swimming, Diving, and almost Living in Water; by which they command the less swift Inhabitants of the Floods. And then for Shooting; what they cannot take, or reach with their Hands, they do with Arrows; and have so admirable an Aim, that they will split almost an Hair; and at any distance that an Arrow can reach, they will shoot down Oranges, and other Fruit, and only touch the Stalk with the Dart’s Points, that they may not hurt the Fruit. So that they being, on all Occasions, very useful to us, we find it absolutely necessary to caress ’em as Friends, and not to treat ’em as Slaves; nor dare we do other, their Numbers so far surpassing ours in that <hi>Continent.</hi>
<p><pb n=”13″/>Those then whom we make use of to work in our Plantations of Sugar, are <hi>Negro’s, Black-</hi>Slaves altogether; which are transported thither in this manner.</p>
<p>Those who want Slaves, make a Bargain with a Master, or Captain of a Ship, and contract to pay him so much a-piece, a matter of twenty Pound a Head for as many as he agrees for, and to pay for ’em when they shall be deliver’d on such a Plantation: So that when there arrives a Ship laden with Slaves, they who have so contracted, go a-board, and receive their Number by Lot; and perhaps in one Lot that may be for ten, there may happen to be three or four Men; the rest, Women and Children: Or be there more or less of either Sex, you are oblig’d to be contented with your Lot.</p>
<pb n=”14″/><p><hi>Coramantien,</hi><note type=”gloss”> Coramantien was the name both of slave-trading castle, depicted here, and of the coastal area of what is now the nation of Ghana where several such fortified trading posts were located. In the 1660s, when this story is set, both English and Dutch slave traders used the fort at Coramantien. By the late seventeenth century, it was controlled by the Dutch, who renamed it Fort Amsterdam. Its ruins can still be visited today. <a href=”http://virginia-anthology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/FortAmsterdamCormantine.jpg” rel=”attachment wp-att-2408″><img class=”aligncenter size-medium wp-image-2408″ src=”http://virginia-anthology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/FortAmsterdamCormantine-300×206.jpg” alt=”FortAmsterdamCormantine” width=”300″ height=”206″ /> </note> a Country of <hi>Blacks</hi> so called, was one of those places in which they found the most advantageous Trading for these Slaves; and thither most of our great Traders in that Merchandice traffick’d; for that Nation is very war-like and brave; and having a continual Campaign, being always in Hostility with one neighbouring Prince or other, they had the fortune to take a great many Captives; for all they took in Battel, were sold as Slaves; at least, those common Men who cou’d not ransom themselves. Of these Slaves so taken, the General only has all the profit; and of these Generals, our Captains and Masters of Ships buy all their Freights.</p>
<p>The King of <hi>Coramantien</hi> was himself a Man of a Hundred and<pb n=”15″/> odd Years old, and had no Son, though he had many beautiful <hi>Black-</hi>Wives; for most certainly, there are Beauties that can charm of that Colour. In his younger Years he had had many gallant Men to his Sons, thirteen of which died in Battel, conquering when they fell; and he had only left him for his Successor, one Grand-Child, Son to one of these dead Victors; who, as soon as he cou’d bear a Bow in his Hand, and a Quiver at his Back, was sent into the Field, to be trained up by one of the oldest Generals, to War; where, from his natural Inclination to Arms, and the Occasions given him, with the good Conduct of the old General, he became, at the Age of Seventeen, one of the most expert Captains, and bravest Soldiers, that ever saw <pb n=”16″/>the Field of <hi>Mars:</hi> So that he was ador’d as the Wonder of all that World, and the Darling of the Soldiers. Besides, he was adorn’d with a native Beauty so transcending all those of his gloomy Race, that he strook an Awe and Reverence, even in those that knew not his Quality; as he did in me, who beheld him with Surprize and Wonder, when afterwards he arriv’d in our World.</p>
<p>He had scarce arriv’d at his Seventeenth Year, when fighting by his Side, the General was kill’d with an Arrow in his Eye, which the Prince <hi>Oroonoko</hi> (for so was this gallant <hi>Moor</hi> call’d) very narrowly avoided; nor had he, if the General, who saw the Arrow shot, and perceiving it aim’d at the Prince, had not bow’d his Head between, on purpose to receive it in his own <pb n=”17″/>Body rather than it shou’d touch that of the Prince, and so saved him.</p>
<p>’Twas then, afflicted as <hi>Oroonoko</hi> was, that he was proclaim’d Genéral in the old Man’s place; and then it was, at the finishing of that War, which had continu’d for two Years, that the Prince came to Court; where he had hardly been a Month together, from the time of his fifth Year, to that of Seventeen; and ’twas amazing to imagine where it was he learn’d so much Humanity; or, to give his Accomplishments a juster Name, where ’twas he got that real Greatness of Soul, those refin’d Notions of true Honour, that absolute Generosity, and that Softness that was capable of the highest Passions of Love and Gallantry, whose Objects were almost<pb n=”18″/> continually fighting Men, or those mangl’d, or dead; who heard no Sounds, but those of War and Groans: Some part of it we may attribute to the Care of a <hi>French-</hi>Man of Wit and Learning; who finding it turn to very good Account to be a sort of Royal Tutor to this young <hi>Black,</hi> &amp; perceiving him very ready, apt, and quick of Apprehension, took a great pleasure to teach him Morals, Language and Science; and was for it extreamly belov’d and valu’d by him. Another Reason was, He lov’d, when he came from War, to see all the <hi>English</hi> Gentlemen that traded thither; and did not only learn their Language, but that of the <hi>Spaniards</hi> also, with whom he traded afterwards for Slaves.</p>
<p>I have often seen and convers’d with this great Man, and been a Witness to many of his mighty Actions; and do assure my Reader, the most Illustrious Courts cou’d not have produc’d a braver Man, both for Greatness of Courage and Mind, a Judgment more solid, a Wit more quick, and a Conversation more sweet and diverting. He knew almost as much as if he had read much: He had heard of, and admir’d the <hi>Romans;</hi> he had heard of the late Civil Wars in <hi>England,</hi> <note type=”gloss”> The English Civil Wars of 1642 1649 between the supporters of the Stuart monarchy and the supporters of Parliament, which led to the execution of Charles I in 1649. </note> and the deplorable Death of our great Monarch; and wou’d discourse of it with all the Sense, and Abhorrence of the Injustice imaginable. He had an extream good and graceful Mien, and all the Civility of a well-bred great Man. He had nothing of Barbarity in his Nature, but in all Points address’d himself, as if his Education had been in some <hi>European</hi> Court.</p>
This great and just Character of <hi>Oroonoko</hi> gave me an extream Curiosity to see him, especially when I knew he spoke <hi>French</hi> and <hi>English,</hi> <note type=”gloss”> Behn’s emphasis on Oroonoko’s knowledge of French and English associates him with civilized Europeans; eloquent Africans in European literature were often imagined as here, as more European than African. </note> and that I cou’d talk with him. But though I had heard so much of him, I was as greatly surpriz’d when I saw him, as if I had heard nothing of him; so beyond all Report I found him. He came into the Room, and address’d himself to me, and some other Women, with the best Grace in the World. He was pretty tall, but of a Shape the most exact that can be fansy’d: The most famous Statuary <note type=”gloss”> An artist who makes statues, a sculptor of statues. (OED) </note>cou’d not form the Figure of a Man more admirably turn’d from Head to Foot. His Face was not of that brown, rusty Black which most of that Nation are, but a perfect Ebony, or polish’d Jett. His Eyes were the most awful <note type=”gloss”> awe-inspiring </note>that cou’d be seen, and very piercing; the White of ’em being like Snow, as were his Teeth. His Nose was rising and <hi>Roman,</hi> instead of <hi>African</hi> and flat. His Mouth, the finest shap’d that cou’d be seen; far from those great turn’d Lips, which are so natural to the rest of the <hi>Negroes.</hi> The whole Proportion and Air of his Face was so noble, and exactly form’d, that, bating <note type=”gloss”> excepting </note>his Colour, there cou’d be nothing in Nature more beautiful, agreeable and handsome. There was no one Grace wanting, that bears the Standard of true Beauty: His Hair came down to his Shoulders, by the Aids of Art; which was, by pulling it out with a Quill, and keeping it comb’d; of which he took particular Care. Nor did the Perfections of his Mind come short of those of his Person; for his Discourse was admirable upon almost any Subject; and who-ever had heard him speak, wou’d have been convinc’d of their Errors, that all fine Wit is confin’d to the <hi>White</hi> Men, especially to those of <hi>Christendom;</hi> and wou’d have confess’d that <hi>Oroonoko</hi> was as capable even of reigning well, and of governing as wisely, had as great a Soul, as politick <note type=”gloss”> prudent, shrewd, sagacious (OED) </note>Maxims, and was as sensible of Power as any Prince civiliz’d in the most refin’d Schools of Humanity and Learning, or the most Illustrious Courts.</p>
<div type=”audio”>[soundcloud url=”https://api.soundcloud.com/tracks/268149614″ params=”auto_play=false&hide_related=false&show_comments=true&show_user=true&show_reposts=false&visual=true” width=”100%” height=”450″ iframe=”true” /]</div>
<p>This Prince, such as I have describ’d him, whose Soul and Body were so admirably adorn’d, was (while yet he was in the Court of his Grandfather) as I said, as capable of Love, as ’twas possible for a brave and gallant Man to be;and in saying that, I have nam’d the highest Degree of Love; for sure, great Souls are most capable of that Passion.</p>
<p>I have already said, the old General was kill’d by the shot of an Arrow, by the Side of this Prince, in Battel; and that <hi>Oroonoko</hi> was made General. This old dead <hi>Hero</hi> had one only Daughter left of his Race; a Beauty that, to describe her truly, one need say only, she was Female to the noble Male; the beautiful <hi>Black Venus,</hi> to our young <hi>Mars;</hi> as charming in her Person as he, and of delicate Vertues. I have seen an hundred <hi>White</hi> Men sighing after her, and making a thousand Vows at her Feet, all vain, and unsuccessful: And she was, indeed, too great for any, but a Prince of her own Nation to adore.</p>
<hi>Oroonoko</hi> coming from the Wars, (which were now ended) after he had made his Court to his Grandfather, he thought in Honour he ought to make a Visit to <hi>Imoinda,</hi> the Daughter of his Foster-father, the dead General; and to make some Excuses to her, because his Preservation was the Occasion of her Father’s Death; and to present her with those Slaves that had been taken in this last Battel, as the Trophies of her Father’s Victories. When he came, attended by all the young Soldiers of any Merit, he was infinitely surpriz’d at the Beauty of this fair Queen of Night, whose Face and Person was so exceeding all he had ever beheld, that lovely Modesty with which she receiv’d him, that Softness in her Look, and Sighs, upon the melancholy Occasion of this Honour that was done by so great a Man as <hi>Oroonoko,</hi> and a Prince of whom she had heard such admirable things; the Awfulness wherewith she receiv’d him, and the Sweetness of her Words and Behaviour while he stay’d, gain’d a perfect Conquest over his fierce Heart, and made him feel, the Victor cou’d be subdu’d. So that having made his first Complements, and presented her an hundred and fifty Slaves in Fetters, he told her with his Eyes, that he was not insensible of her Charms; while <hi>Imoinda,</hi> who wish’d for nothing more than so glorious a Conquest, was pleas’d to believe, she understood that silent Language of new-born Love; and from that Moment, put on all her Additions to Beauty.</p>
<pb n=”26″/>
The Prince return’d to Court with quite another Humour than before; and though he did not speak much of the fair <hi>Imoinda,</hi> he had the pleasure to hear all his Followers speak of nothing but the Charms of that Maid; insomuch that, even in the Presence of the old King, they were extolling her, and heightning, if possible, the Beauties they had found in her: So that nothing else was talk’d of, no other Sound was heard in every Corner where there were Whisperers, but <hi>Imoinda! Imoinda!</hi>
<p>’Twill be imagin’d <hi>Oroonoko</hi> stay’d not long before he made his second Visit; nor, considering his Quality, not much longer before he told her, he ador’d her. I have often heard him say, that he admir’d by what strange Inspiration he came to talk things so soft, and<pb n=”27″/> so passionate, who never knew Love, nor was us’d to the Conversation of Women; but (to use his own Words) he said, Most happily, some new, and till then unknown Power instructed his Heart and Tongue in the Language of Love, and at the same time, in favour of him, inspir’d <hi>Imoinda</hi> with a Sense of his Passion. She was touch’d with what he said, and return’d it all in such Answers as went to his very Heart, with a Pleasure unknown before: Nor did he use those Obligations ill, that Love had done him; but turn’d all his happy Moments to the best advantage; and as he knew no Vice, his Flame aim’d at nothing but Honour, if such a distinction may be made in Love; and especially in that Country, where Men take to themselves as many<pb n=”28″/> as they can maintain; and where the only Crime and Sin with Woman is, to turn her off, to abandon her to Want, Shame and Misery: Such ill Morals are only practis’d in <hi>Christian-</hi>Countries, where they prefer the bare Name of Religion; and, without Vertue or Morality, think that’s sufficient. But <hi>Oroonoko</hi> was none of those Professors; but as he had right Notions of Honour, so he made her such Propositions as were not only and barely such; but, contrary to the Custom of his Country, he made her Vows, she shou’d be the only woman he wou’d possess while he liv’d; that no Age or Wrinkles shou’d incline him to change, for her Soul wou’d be always fine, and always young; and he shou’d have an eternal <hi>Idea</hi> in his Mind of the Charms she now <pb n=”29/”>bore, and shou’d look into his Heart for that <hi>Idea,</hi> when he cou’d find it no longer in her Face.</p>
<p>After a thousand Assurances of his lasting Flame, and her eternal Empire over him, she condescended to receive him for her Husband; or rather, receiv’d him, as the greatest Honour the God’s cou’d do her.</p>
<p>There is a certain Ceremony in these Cases to be observ’d, which I forgot to ask him how perform’d; but ’twas concluded on both sides, that, in Obedience to him, the Grand-father was to be first made acquainted with the Design: for they pay a most absolute Resignation to the Monarch, especially when he is a Parent also.</p>
<p>On the other side, the old King, who had many Wives, and many<pb n=”30″/> Concubines, wanted not Court-Flatterers to insinuate in his Heart a thousand tender Thoughts for this young Beauty; and who represented her to his Fancy, as the most charming he had ever possess’d in all the long Race of his numerous Years. At this Character his old Heart, like an extinguish’d Brand, most apt to take Fire, felt new Sparks of Love, and began to kindle; and now grown to his second Childhood, long’d with Impatience to behold this gay thing, with whom, alas! he cou’d but innocently play. But how he shou’d be confirm’d she was this <hi>Wonder,</hi> before he us’d his Power to call her to Court (where Maidens never came, unless for the King’s private Use) he was next to consider; and while he was so doing, he had Intelligence <pb n=”31″/>brought him, that <hi>Imoinda</hi> was most certainly Mistress to the Prince <hi>Oroonoko.</hi> This gave him some <hi>Shagrien;</hi> however, it gave him also an Opportunity, one Day, when the Prince was a-hunting, to wait on a Man of Quality, as his Slave and Attendant, who shou’d go and make a Present to <hi>Imoinda,</hi> as from the Prince; he shou’d then, unknown, see this fair Maid, and have an Opportunity to hear what Message she wou’d return the Prince for his Present; and from thence gather the state of her Heart, and degree of her Inclination. This was put in Execution, and the old Monarch saw, and burnt: He found her all he had heard, and wou’d not delay his Happiness, but found he shou’d have some Obstacle to overcome her Heart; for she express’d <pb n=”32″/>her Sense of the Present the Prince had sent her, in terms so sweet, so soft and pretty, with an Air of Love and Joy that cou’d not be dissembl’d; insomuch that ’twas past doubt whether she lov’d <hi>Oroonoko</hi> entirely. This gave the old King some Affliction; but he salv’d it with this, that the Obedience the People pay their King, was not at all inferior to what they pay’d their Gods: And what Love wou’d not oblige <hi>Imoinda</hi> to do, Duty wou’d compel her to.</p>
<p>He was therefore no sooner got to his Apartment, but he sent the Royal Veil to <hi>Imoinda;</hi> that is, the Ceremony of Invitation; he sends the Lady, he has a Mind to honour with his Bed, a Veil, with which she is cover’d, and secur’d for the King’s Use; and ’tis Death to disobey; besides, held a most impious Disobedience.</p>
<pb n=”33″/>
‘Tis not to be imagin’d the Surprize and Grief that seiz’d this lovely Maid at this News and Sight. However, as Delays in these Cases are dangerous, and Pleading worse than Treason; trembling, and almost fainting, she was oblig’d to suffer her self to be cover’d, and led away.</p>
<p>They brought her thus to Court; and the King, who had caus’d a very rich Bath to be prepar’d, was led into it, where he sate under a Canopy, in State, to receive this long’d for Virgin; whom he having commanded shou’d be brought to him, they (after dis-robing her) led her to the Bath, and making fast the Doors, left her to descend. The King, without more Courtship, bad her throw off her Mantle, and come to his Arms. But <hi>Imoinda,</hi> all in <pb n=”34″/>
Tears, threw her self on the Marble, on the Brink of the Bath, and besought him to hear her. She told him, as she was a Maid, how proud of the Divine Glory she should have been of having it in her power to oblige her King: but as by the Laws, he cou’d not; and from his Royal Goodness, wou’d not take from any Man his wedded Wife: So she believ’d she shou’d be the Occasion of making him commit a great Sin, if she did not reveal her State and Condition; and tell him, she was anothers, and cou’d not be so happy to be his.</p>
<p>The King, enrag’d at this Delay, hastily demanded the Name of the bold Man, that had marry’d a Woman of her Degree, without his Consent. <hi>Imoinda,</hi> seeing his Eyes fierce, and his Hands tremble; <pb n=”35″/>whether with Age, or Anger, I know not; but she fansy’d the last, almost repented she had said so much, for now she fear’d the Storm wou’d fall on the Prince; she therefore said a thousand things to appease the raging of his Flame, and to prepare him to hear who it was with Calmness; but before she spoke, he imagin’d who she meant, but wou’d not seem to do so, but commanded her to lay aside her Mantle <note type=”gloss”> a protective cloak or garment; a loose, sleeveless cloak. (OED) </note>, and suffer her self to receive his Caresses; or, by his Gods, he swore, that happy Man whom she was going to name shou’d die, though it were even <hi>Oroonoko</hi> himself. <hi>Therefore</hi> (said he) <hi>deny this Marriage, and swear thy self a Maid. That</hi> (reply’d <hi>Imoinda) by all our Powers I do; for I am not yet known to my Husband. ‘Tis enough</hi> (said the King:) <hi>’tis enough</hi><pb n=”36″/> <hi>to satisfie both my Conscience, and my Heart.</hi> And rising from his Seat, he went, and led her into the Bath; it being in vain for her to resist.</p>
<p>In this time the Prince, who was return’d from Hunting, went to visit his <hi>Imoinda,</hi> but found her gone; and not only so, but heard she had receiv’d the Royal Veil <note type=”gloss”> A veil delivered by the king as an invitation to his harem. </note>. This rais’d him to a Storm; and in his Madness, they had much ado to save him from laying violent Hands on himself. Force first prevail’d, and then Reason: They urg’d all to him, that might oppose his Rage; but nothing weigh’d so greatly with him as the King’s Old Age uncapable of injuring him <note=”gloss”> that is, the King is impotent. It’s notable that the narrator thinks first of the potential cost to Oroonoko rather than the cost to Imoinda.</note> with <hi>Imoinda.</hi> He wou’d give way to that Hope, because it pleas’d him most, and flatter’d best his Heart. Yet this <pb n=”37″/>serv’d not altogether to make him cease his different Passions, which sometimes rag’d within him, and sometimes softned into Showers. ‘Twas not enough to appease him, to tell him, his Grand-father was old, and cou’d not that way injure him, while he retain’d that awful Duty which the young Men are us’d there to pay to their grave Relations. He cou’d not be convinc’d he had no Cause to sigh and mourn for the Loss of a Mistress, he cou’d not with all his Strength and Courage retrieve. And he wou’d often cry, <hi>O my Friends! were she in wall’d Cities, or confin’d from me in Fortifications of the greatest Strength; did Inchantments or Monsters detain her from me, I wou’d venture through any Hazard to free her: Buthere, in the Arms of a feeble old Man, my Youth, my violent Love, my Trade</hi><pb n=”38″/><hi>in Arms, and all my vast Desire of Glory, avail me nothing:</hi> Imoinda <hi>is as irrecoverably lost to me, as if she were snatch’d by the cold Arms of Death: Oh! she is never to be retriev’d. If I wou’d wait tedious Years, till Fate shou’d bow the old King to his Grave; even that wou’d not leave me</hi> Imoinda <hi>free; but still that Custom that makes it so vile a Crime for a Son to marry his Father’s Wives or Mistresses, wou’d hinder my Happiness; unless I wou’d either ignobly set an ill President to my Successors, or abandon my Country, and fly with her to some unknown World, who never heard our Story.</hi>
<p>But it was objected to him, that his Case was not the same; for <hi>Imoinda</hi> being his lawful Wife, by solemn Contract, ’twas he was the injur’d Man, and might, if he so pleas’d, take <hi>Imoinda</hi> back, the <pb n=”39″/>Breach of the Law being on his Grand-father’s side; and that if he cou’d circumvent him, and redeem her from the <hi>Otan<note type=”gloss”>”Otan” seems to be derived from the Turkish word “odan,” referring to a room or small enclosure in a harem. This is one of the moments when this part of the story, though set in Africa, feels more like an “Oriental” tale.</note>,</hi> which is the Palace of the King’s Women, a sort of <hi>Seraglio,</hi> it was both just and lawful for him so to do.</p>
<p>This Reasoning had some force upon him, and he shou’d have been entirely comforted, but for the Thought that she was possess’d by his Grand-father. However, he lov’d so well, that he was resolv’d to believe what most favour’d his Hope; and to endeavour to learn from <hi>Imoinda</hi>’s own Mouth, what only she cou’d satisfie him in; whether she was robb’d of that Blessing, which was only due to his Faith and Love. But as it was very hard to get a Sight of the Women, for no Men ever enter’d into the <hi>Otan,</hi> but when<pb n=”40″> the King went to entertain himself with some one of his Wives, or Mistresses; and ’twas Death at any other time, for any other to go in; so he knew not how to contrive to get a Sight of her.</p>
<div class=”audio”>[soundcloud url=”https://api.soundcloud.com/tracks/268149611″ params=”auto_play=false&hide_related=false&show_comments=true&show_user=true&show_reposts=false&visual=true” width=”100%” height=”450″ iframe=”true” /]</div>
<p>While <hi>Oroonoko</hi> felt all the Agonies of Love, and suffer’d under a Torment the most painful in the World, the old King was not exempted from his share of Affliction. He was troubl’d for having been forc’d by an irresistable Passion, to rob his Son<note type=”gloss”>Oroonoko is actually his grandson.</note> of a Treasure, he knew, cou’d not but be extreamly dear to him, since she was the most beautiful that ever had been seen; and had besides, all the Sweetness and Innocence of Youth and Modesty, with a Charm of Wit surpassing all. He found that, however she was forc’d to expose her lovely Person to his wither’d Arms, she <pb n=”41″>cou’d only sigh and weep there, and think of <hi>Oroonoko;</hi> and oftentimes cou’d not forbear speaking of him, though her Life were, by Custom, forfeited by owning her Passion. But she spoke not of a Lover only, but of a Prince dear to him, to whom she spoke; and of the Praises of a Man, who, till now, fill’d the old Man’s Soul with Joy at every Recital of his Bravery, or even his Name. And ’twas this Dotage on our young <hi>Hero,</hi> that gave <hi>Imoinda</hi> a thousand Privileges to speak of him, without offending; and this Condescention in the old King, that made her take the Satisfaction of speaking of him so very often.</p>
<p>Besides, he many times enquir’d how the Prince bore himself; and those of whom he ask’d, being entirely Slaves to the Merits and Vertues <pb n=”42″> of the Prince, still answer’d what they thought conduc’d best to his Service; which was, to make the old King fansy that the Prince had no more Interest in <hi>Imoinda,</hi> and had resign’d her willingly to the Pleasure of the King; that he diverted himself with his Mathematicians, his Fortifications, his Officers, and his Hunting.</p>
<p>This pleas’d the old Lover, who fail’d not to report these things again to <hi>Imoinda,</hi> that she might, by the Example of her young Lover, withdraw her Heart, and rest better contented in his Arms. But however she was forc’d to receive this unwelcome News, in all Appearance, with Unconcern, and Content, her Heart was bursting within, and she was only happy when she cou’d get alone, to vent her Griefs and Moans with Sighs and Tears.</p>
<pb n=”43″/>
What Reports of the Prince’s Conduct were made to the King, he thought good to justifie as far as possibly he cou’d by his Actions; and when he appear’d in the Presence of the King, he shew’d a Face not at all betraying his Heart: So that in a little time the old Man, being entirely convinc’d that he was no longer a Lover of <hi>Imoinda,</hi> he carry’d him with him, in his Train, to the <hi>Otan,</hi> often to banquet with his Mistress. But as soon as he enter’d, one Day, into the Apartment of <hi>Imoinda,</hi> with the King, at the first Glance from her Eyes, notwithstanding all his determin d Resolution, he was ready to sink in the place where he stood; and had certainly done so, but for the Support of <hi>Aboan,</hi> a young Man, who was next to him; which, with his Change of Countenance,<pb n=”44″/> had betray’d him, had the King chanc’d to look that way. And I have observ’d, ’tis a very great Error in those, who laugh when one says, <hi>A</hi> Negro <hi>can change Colour;</hi> for I have seen ’em as frequently blush, and look pale, and that as visibly as ever I saw in the most beautiful <hi>White.</hi> And ’tis certain that both these Changes were evident, this Day, in both these Lovers. And <hi>Imoinda,</hi> who saw with some Joy the Change in the Prince’s Face, and found it in her own, strove to divert the King from beholding either, by a forc’d Caress, with which she met him; which was a new Wound in the Heart of the poor dying Prince. But as soon as the King was busy’d in looking on some fine thing of <hi>Imoinda</hi>’s making, she had time to tell the Prince with her angry,<pb n=”45″/> but Love-darting Eyes, that she resented his Coldness, and bemoan’d her own miserable Captivity. Nor were his Eyes silent, but answer’d hers again, as much as Eyes cou’d do, instructed by the most tender, and most passionate Heart that ever lov’d: And they spoke so well, and so effectually, as <hi>Imoinda</hi> no longer doubted, but she was the only Delight, and the Darling of that Soul she found pleading in ’em its Right of Love, which none was more willing to resign than she. And ’twas this powerful Language alone that in an Instant convey’d all the Thoughts of their Souls to each other; that they both found, there wanted but Opportunity to make them both entirely happy. But when he saw another Door open’d by <hi>Onahal,</hi> a former old Wife of <pb n=”46″/>the King’s, who now had Charge of <hi>Imoinda;</hi> and saw the Prospect of a Bed of State made ready, with Sweets and Flowers for the Dalliance of the King; who immediately lead the trembling Victim from his Sight, into that prepar’d Repose. What Rage! what wild Frenzies seiz’d his Heart! which forcing to keep within Bounds, and to suffer without Noise, it became the more insupportable, and rent his Soul with ten thousand Pains. He was forc’d to retire, to vent his Groans; where he fell down on a Carpet, and lay struggling a long time, and only breathing now and then,—<hi>O Imoinda!</hi> When <hi>Onahal</hi> had finish’d her necessary Affair within, shutting the Door, she came forth to wait, till the King call’d; and hearing some one sighing in the other<pb n=”47″/> Room, she pass’d on, and found the Prince in that deplorable Condition, which she thought needed her Aid: She gave him Cordials, but all in vain; till finding the nature of his Disease, by his Sighs, and naming <hi>Imoinda.</hi> She told him, he had not so much Cause as he imagin’d, to afflict himself; for if he knew the King so well as she did, he wou’d not lose a Moment in Jealousie, and that she was confident that <hi>Imoinda</hi> bore, at this Minute, part in his Affliction. <hi>Aboan</hi> was of the same Opinion; and both together, perswaded him to re-assume his Courage; and all sitting down on the Carpet, the Prince said so many obliging things to <hi>Onahal,</hi> that he half perswaded her to be of his Party. And she promis’d him, she wou’d thus far comply with his just Desires, that she<pb n=”48″/> wou’d let <hi>Imoinda</hi> know how faithful he was, what he suffer’d, and what he said.</p>
<p>This Discourse lasted till the King call’d, which gave <hi>Oroonoko</hi> a certain Satisfaction; and with the Hope <hi>Onahal</hi> had made him conceive, he assum’d a Look as gay as ’twas possible a Man in his Circumstances cou’d do; and presently after, he was call’d in with the rest who waited without. The King commanded Musick to be brought, and several of his young Wives and Mistresses came all together by his Command, to dance before him; where <hi>Imoinda</hi> perform’d her Part with an Air and Grace so passing all the rest, as her Beauty was above ’em; and receiv’d the Present, ordain’d as a Prize. The Prince was every Moment more charm’d with the <pb n=”49″/> new Beauties and Graces he beheld in this fair One: And while he gaz’d, and she danc’d, <hi>Onahal</hi> was retir’d to a Window with <hi>Aboan.</hi>
<p>This <hi>Onahal,</hi> as I said, was one of the Cast-Mistresses<note type=”gloss”> discarded, former mistresses</note> of the old King; and ’twas these (now past their Beauty) that were made Guardians, or Governants to the new, and the young Ones; and whose Business it was, to teach them all those wanton Arts of Love, with which they prevail’d and charm’d heretofore in their Turn; and who now treated the triumphing happy Ones with all the Severity, as to Liberty and Freedom, that was possible, in revenge of those Honours they rob them of; envying them those Satisfactions, those Gallantries and Presents, that were once made to themselves, while Youth and <pb n=”50″/>Beauty lasted, and which they now saw pass were regardless by, and pay’d only to the Bloomings. And certainly, nothing is more afflicting to a decay’d Beauty, than to behold in it self declining Charms, that were once ador’d; and to find those Caresses paid to new Beauties, to which once she laid a Claim; to hear ’em whisper as she passes by, <hi>That once was a delicate Woman.</hi> These abandon’d Ladies therefore endeavour to revenge all the Despights, and Decays of Time, on these flourishing happy Ones. And ’twas this Severity, that gave <hi>Oroonoko</hi> a thousand Fears he shou’d never prevail with <hi>Onahal,</hi> to see <hi>Imoinda.</hi> But, as I said, she was now retir’d to a Window with <hi>Aboan.</hi>
<p>This young Man was not only one of the best Quality, but a Man <pb n=”51″/>extreamly well made, and beautiful; and coming often to attend the King to the <hi>Otan,</hi> he had subdu’d the Heart of the antiquated <hi>Onahal,</hi> which had not forgot how pleasant it was to be in Love: And though she had some Decays in her Face, she had none in her Sence and Wit; she was there agreeable still, even to <hi>Aboan</hi>’s Youth; so that he took pleasure in entertaining her with Discourses of Love: He knew also, that to make his Court to these She-Favourites, was the way to be great; these being the Persons that do all Affairs and Business at Court. He had also observ’d that she had given him Glances more tender and inviting, than she had done to others of his Quality: And now, when he saw that her Favour cou’d so absolutely oblige the Prince, he<pb n=”52″/> fail’d not to sigh in her Ear, and to look with Eyes all soft upon her, and give her Hope that she had made some Impressions on his Heart. He found her pleas’d at this, and making a thousand Advances to him; but the Ceremony ending, and the King departing, broke up the Company for that Day, and his Conversation.</p>
<hi>Aboan</hi> fail’d not that Night to tell the Prince of his Success, and how advantageous the Service of <hi>Onahal</hi> might be to his Amour with <hi>Imoinda.</hi> The Prince was overjoy’d with this good News, and besought him, if it were possible, to caress her so, as to engage her entirely; which he cou’d not fail to do, if he comply’d with her Desires: <hi>For then</hi> (said the Prince) <hi>her Life lying at your Mercy, she must grant you the Request you make in my</hi><pb n=”53″/><hi>Behalf. Aboan</hi> understood him; and assur’d him, he would make Love so effectually, that he wou’d defie the most expert Mistress of the Art, to find out whether he dissembl’d it, or had it really. And ’twas with Impatience they waited the next Opportunity of going to the <hi>Otan.</hi>
<p>The Wars came on, the Time of taking the Field approach’d, and ’twas impossible for the Prince to delay his going at the Head of his Army, to encounter the Enemy: So that every Day seem’d a tedious Year, till he saw his <hi>Imoinda;</hi> for he believ’d he cou’d not live, if he were forc’d away without being so happy. ‘Twas with Impatience therefore, that he expected the next Visit the King wou’d make; and, according to his Wish, it was not long.</p>
<pb n=”54″/>
The Parley of the Eyes of these two Lovers had not pass’d so secretly, but an old jealous Lover cou’d spy it; or rather, he wanted not Flatterers, who told him, they observ’d it: So that the Prince was hasten’d to the Camp, and this was the last Visit he found he shou’d make to the <hi>Otan;</hi> he therefore urg’d <hi>Aboan</hi> to make the best of this last Effort, and to explain himself so to <hi>Onahal,</hi> that she, deferring her Enjoyment of her young Lover no longer, might make way for the Prince to speak to <hi>Imoinda.</hi>
<p>The whole Affair being agreed on between the Prince and <hi>Aboan,</hi> they attended the King, as the Custom was, to the <hi>Otan;</hi> where, while the whole Company was taken up in beholding the Dancing, and antick Postures the Women<pb n=”55″/> Royal made, to divert the King, <hi>Onahal</hi> singl’d out <hi>Aboan,</hi> whom she found most pliable to her Wish. When she had him where she believ’d she cou’d not be heard, she sigh’d to him, and softly cry’d, <hi>Ah,</hi> Aboan! <hi>When will you be sensible of my Passion? I confess it with my Mouth, because I wou’d not give my Eyes the Lye; and you have but too much already perceiv’d they have confess’d my Flame: Nor wou’d I have you believe, that because I am the abandon’d Mistress of a King, I esteem my self altogether divested of Charms. No,</hi> Aboan; <hi>I have still a Rest of Beauty enough engaging, and have learn’d to please too well, not to be desirable. I can have Lovers still, but will have none but</hi> Aboan. <hi>Madam</hi> (reply’d the half-feigning Youth) <hi>you have already, by my Eyes, found, you can still conquer; and I believe ’tis in pity of me,</hi><pb n=”56″/><hi>you condescend to this kind Confession. But, Madam, Words are us’d to be so small a part of our Country-Courtship, that ’tis rare one can get so happy an Opportunity as to tell one’s Heart; and those few Minutes we have are forc’d to be snatch’d for more certain Proofs of Love, than speaking and sighing; and such I languish for.</hi>
<p>He spoke this with such a Tone, that she hop’d it true, and cou’d not forbear believing it; and being wholly transported with Joy, for having subdu’d the finest of all the King’s Subjects to her Desires, she took from her Ears two large Pearls, and commanded him to wear ’em in his. He wou’d have refus’d ’em, crying, <hi>Madam, these are not the Proofs of your Love that I expect; ’tis Opportunity, ’tis a Lonehour only, that can make me happy.</hi> But forcing the Pearls into his<pb n=”57″/> Hand, she whisper’d softly to him, <hi>Oh! Do not fear a Woman’s Invention, when Love sets her a-thinking.</hi> And pressing his Hand, she cry’d, <hi>This Night you shall be happy. Come to the Gate of the Orange-Groves, behind the</hi> Otan; <hi>and I will be ready, about Mid-night, to receive you.</hi> ‘Twas thus agreed, and she left him, that no notice might be taken of their speaking together.</p>
<p>The Ladies were still dancing, and the King, laid on a Carpet, with a great deal of pleasure, was beholding them, especially <hi>Imoinda;</hi> who that Day appear’d more lovely than ever, being enliven’d with the good Tidings <hi>Onahal</hi> had brought her of the constant Passion the Prince had for her. The Prince was laid on another Carpet, at the other end of the Room, with his Eyes fix’d on the Object <pb n=”58″/> of his Soul; and as she turn’d, or mov’d, so did they; and she alone gave his Eyes and Soul their Motions: Nor did <hi>Imoinda</hi> employ her Eyes to any other Use, than in beholding with infinite Pleasure the Joy she produc’d in those of the Prince. But while she was more regarding him, than the Steps she took, she chanc’d to fall; and so near him, as that leaping with extream force from the Carpet, he caught her in his Arms as she fell; and ’twas visible to the whole Presence, the Joy wherewith he receiv’d her: He clasp’d her close to his Bosom, and quite forgot that Reverence that was due to the Mistress of a King, and that Punishment that is the Reward of a Boldness of this nature; and had not the Presence of Mind of <hi>Imoinda</hi> (fonder of his Safety, than her<pb n=”59″/> own) befriended him, in making her spring from his Arms, and fall into her Dance again, he had, at that Instant, met his Death; for the old King, jealous to the last degree, rose up in Rage, broke all the Diversion, and led <hi>Imoinda</hi> to her Apartment, and sent out Word to the Prince, to go immediately to the Camp; and that if he were found another Night in Court, he shou’d suffer the Death ordain’d for disobedient Offenders.</p>
<p>You may imagine how welcome this News was to <hi>Oroonoko,</hi> whose unseasonable Transport and Caress of <hi>Imoinda</hi> was blam’d by all Men that lov’d him; and now he perceiv’d his Fault, yet cry’d, <hi>That for such another Moment, he wou’d be content to die.</hi>
<p>All the <hi>Otan</hi> was in disorder about this Accident; and <hi>Onahal</hi><pb n=”60″/> was particularly concern’d, because on the Prince’s Stay depended her Happiness; for she cou’d no longer expect that of <hi>Aboan.</hi> So that, e’er they departed, they contriv’d it so, that the Prince and he shou’d come both that Night to the Grove of the <hi>Otan,</hi> which was all of Oranges and Citrons; and that there they shou’d wait her Orders.</p>
<p>They parted thus, with Grief enough, till Night; leaving the King in possession of the lovely Maid. But nothing cou’d appease the Jealousie of the old Lover: He wou’d not be impos’d on, but wou’d have it, that <hi>Imoinda</hi> made a false Step on purpose to fall into <hi>Oroonoko</hi>’s Bosom, and that all things look’d like a Design on both sides, and ’twas in vain she protested her Innocence: He was old and obstinate, and left her more <pb n=”61″/> than half assur’d that his Fear was true.</p>
<p>The King going to his Apartment, sent to know where the Prince was, and if he intended to obey his Command. The Messenger return’d, and told him, he found the Prince pensive, and altogether unpreparing for the Campaign; that he lay negligently on the Ground, and answer’d very little. This confirm’d the Jealousie of the King, and he commanded that they shou’d very narrowly and privately watch his Motions; and that he shou’d not stir from his Apartment, but one Spy or other shou’d be employ’d to watch him: So that the Hour approaching, wherein he was to go to the Citron-Grove; and taking only <hi>Aboan</hi> along with him, he leaves his Apartment, and was watch’d to the<pb n=”62″/> very Gate of the <hi>Otan;</hi> where he was seen to enter, and where they left him, to carry back the Tidings to the King.</p>
<hi>Oroonoko</hi> and <hi>Aboan</hi> were no sooner enter’d, but <hi>Onahal</hi> led the Prince to the Apartment of <hi>Imoinda;</hi> who, not knowing any thing of her Happiness, was laid in Bed. But <hi>Onahal</hi> only left him in her Chamber, to make the best of his Opportunity, and took her dear <hi>Aboan</hi> to her own; where he shew’d the heighth of Complaisance for his Prince, when, to give him an Opportunity, he suffer’d himself to be caress’d in Bed by <hi>Onahal.</hi>
<p>The Prince softly waken’d <hi>Imoinda,</hi> who was not a little surpriz’d with Joy to find him there; and yet she trembl’d with a thousand Fears. I believe, he omitted saying nothing to this young Maid, <pb n=”63″/>that might perswade her to suffer him to seize his own, and take the Rights of Love; and I believe she was not long resisting those Arms, where she so long’d to be; and having Opportunity, Night and Silence, Youth, Love and Desire, he soon prevail’d; and ravish’d in a Moment, what his old Grand-father had been endeavouring for so many Months.</p>
<div class=”audio”>[soundcloud url=”https://api.soundcloud.com/tracks/268149607″ params=”auto_play=false&hide_related=false&show_comments=true&show_user=true&show_reposts=false&visual=true” width=”100%” height=”450″ iframe=”true” /]</div>
<p>’Tis not to be imagin’d the Satisfaction of these two young Lovers; nor the Vows she made him, that she remain’d a spotless Maid, till that Night; and that what she did with his Grand-father, had robb’d him of no part of her Virgin-Honour, the Gods, in Mercy and Justice, having reserv’d that for her plighted Lord, to whom of Right it belong’d. And ’tis impossible to express the Transports<pb n=”64″/> he suffer’d, while he listen’d to a Discourse so charming, from her lov’d Lips; and clasp’d that Body in his Arms, for whom he had so long languish’d; and nothing now afflicted him, but his suddain Departure from her; for he told her the Necessity, and his Commands; but shou’d depart satisfy’d in this, That since the old King had hitherto not been able to deprive him of those Enjoyments which only belong’d to him, he believ’d for the future he wou’d be less able to injure him; so that, abating the Scandal of the Veil, which was no otherwise so, than that she was Wife to another: He believ’d her safe, even in the Arms of the King, and innocent; yet wou’d he have ventur’d at the Conquest of the World, and have given it all, to have had her avoided that Honour <pb n=”65″/>of receiving the <hi>Royal Veil.</hi> ‘Twas thus, between a thousand Caresses, that both bemoan’d the hard Fate of Youth and Beauty, so liable to that cruel Promotion: ‘Twas a Glory that cou’d well have been spar’d here, though desir’d, and aim’d at by all the young Females of that Kingdom.</p>
<p>But while they were thus fondly employ’d, forgetting how Time ran on, and that the Dawn must conduct him far away from his only Happiness, they heard a great Noise in the <hi>Otan,</hi> and unusual Voices of Men; at which the Prince, starting from the Arms of the frighted <hi>Imoinda,</hi> ran to a little Battel-Ax he us’d to wear by his Side; and having not so much leisure, as to put on his Habit, he oppos’d himself against some who were already opening the Door; <pb n=”66″/>which they did with so much Violence, that <hi>Oroonoko</hi> was not able to defend it; but was forc’d to cry out with a commanding Voice, <hi>Whoever ye are that have the Boldness to attempt to approach this Apartment thus rudely, know, that I, the Prince</hi> Oroonoko, <hi>will revenge it with the certain Death of him that first enters: Therefore stand back, and know, this place is sacred to Love, and me this Night; to Morrow ’tis the King’s.</hi>
<p>This he spoke with a Voice so resolv’d and assur’d, that they soon retir’d from the Door, but cry’d, <hi>’Tis by the King’s Command we are come; and being satisfy’d by thy Voice, O Prince, as much as if we had enter’d, we can report to the King the Truth of all his Fears, and leave thee to provide for thy own Safety, as thou art advis’d by thy Friends.</hi>
<pb n=”67″/>
At these Words they departed, and left the Prince to take a short and sad Leave of his <hi>Imoinda;</hi> who trusting in the strength of her Charms, believ’d she shou’d appease the Fury of a jealous King, by saying, She was surpriz’d, and that it was by force of Arms he got into her Apartment. All her Concern now was for his Life, and therefore she hasten’d him to the Camp; and with much a-do, prevail’d on him to go: Nor was it she alone that prevail’d, <hi>Aboan</hi> and <hi>Onahal</hi> both pleaded, and both assur’d him of a Lye that shou’d be well enough contriv’d to secure <hi>Imoinda.</hi> So that, at last, with a Heart sad as Death, dying Eyes, and sighing Soul, <hi>Oroonoko</hi> departed, and took his way to the Camp.</p>
<pb n=”68″/>
It was not long after the King in Person came to the <hi>Otan;</hi> where beholding <hi>Imoinda</hi> with Rage in his Eyes, he upbraided her Wickedness and Perfidy, and threatning her Royal Lover, she fell on her Face at his Feet, bedewing the Floor with her Tears, and imploring his Pardon for a Fault which she had not with her Will committed; as <hi>Onahal,</hi> who was also prostrate with her, cou’d testifie: That, unknown to her, he had broke into her Apartment, and ravish’d her. She spoke this much against her Conscience; but to save her own Life, ’twas absolutely necessary she shou’d feign this Falsity. She knew it cou’d not injure the Prince, he being fled to-an-Army that wou’d stand by him, against any Injuries that shou’d assault him. However, <pb n=”69″/>this last Thought of <hi>Imoinda</hi>’s being ravish’d, chang’d the Measures of his Revenge; and whereas before he design’d to be himself her Executioner, he now resolv’d she shou’d not die. But as it is the greatest Crime in nature amongst ’em to touch a Woman, after having been possess’d by a Son, a Father, or a Brother; so now he look’d on <hi>Imoinda</hi> as a polluted thing, wholly unfit for his Embrace; nor wou’d he resign her to his Grand-son, because she had receiv’d the <hi>Royal Veil.</hi> He therefore removes her from the <hi>Otan,</hi> with <hi>Onahal;</hi> whom he put into safe Hands, with Order they shou’d be both sold off, as Slaves, to another Country, either <hi>Christian,</hi> or <hi>Heathen;</hi> ’twas no matter where.</p>
<pb n=”70″/>
This cruel Sentence, worse than Death, they implor’d, might be revers’d; but their Prayers were vain, and it was put in Execution accordingly, and that with so much Secrecy, that none, either without, or within the <hi>Otan,</hi> knew any thing of their Absence, or their Destiny.</p>
<p>The old King, nevertheless, executed this with a great deal of Reluctancy; but he believ’d he had made a very great Conquest over himself, when he had once resolv’d, and had perform’d what he resolv’d. He believ’d now, that his Love had been unjust; and that he cou’d not expect the Gods, or Captain of the Clouds<note type=”gloss”>Here Behn seems to be informed by knowledge of African religious traditions, as such references to a sky deity appear there, but we do not know her source for this term.<note>, (as they call the unknown Power) shou’d suffer a better Consequence from so ill a Cause. He now begins to hold <hi>Oroonoko</hi> excus’d; and <pb n=”71″/>to say, he had Reason for what he did: And now every Body cou’d assure the King, how passionately <hi>Imoinda</hi> was belov’d by the Prince; even those confess’d it now, who said the contrary before his Flame was abated. So that the King being old, and not able to defend himself in War, and having no Sons of all his Race remaining alive, but only this, to maintain him on his Throne; and looking on this as a Man disoblig’d, first by the Rape of his Mistress, or rather, Wife; and now by depriving of him wholly of her, he fear’d, might make him desperate, and do some cruel thing, either to himself, or his old Grand-father, the Offender; he began to repent him extreamly of the Contempt he had, in his Rage, put on <hi>Imoinda.</hi> Besides, he consider’d he ought in<pb n=”72″/> Honour to have kill’d her, for this Offence, if it had been one: He ought to have had so much Value and Consideration for a Maid of her Quality, as to have nobly put her to death; and not to have sold her like a common Slave, the greatest Revenge, and the most disgraceful of any; and to which they a thousand times prefer Death, and implore it; as <hi>Imoinda</hi> did, but cou’d not obtain that Honour. Seeing therefore it was certain that <hi>Oroonoko</hi> wou’d highly resent this Affront, he thought good to make some Excuse for his Rashness to him; and to that End he sent a Messenger to the Camp, with Orders to treat with him about the Master, to gain his Pardon, and to endeavour to mitigate his Grief; but that by no means he shou’d tell him, she was sold, but secretly put to death;
<pb n=”73″/> for he knew he shou’d. never obtain his Pardon for the other.</p>
<p>When the Messenger came, he found the Prince upon the point of Engaging with the Enemy; but as soon as he heard of the Arrival of the Messenger, he commanded him to his Tent, where he embrac’d him, and receiv’d him with Joy; which was soon abated, by the down-cast Looks of the Messenger, who was instantly demanded the Cause by <hi>Oroonoko,</hi> who, impatient of Delay, ask’d a thousand Questions in a Breath; and all concerning <hi>Imoinda:</hi> But there needed little Return, for he cou’d almost answer himself of all he demanded, from his Sighs and Eyes. At last, the Messenger casting himself at the Prince’s Feet, and kissing them, with all the Submission of a Man that had something to implore<pb n=”74″/> which he dreaded to utter, he besought him to hear with Calmness what he had to deliver to him, and to call up all his noble and Heroick Courage, to encounter with his Words, and defend himself against the ungrateful things he must relate. <hi>Oroonoko</hi> reply’d, with a deep Sigh, and a languishing Voice,—<hi>I am arm’d against their worst Efforts—; for I know they will tell me,</hi> Imoinda <hi>is no more—; and after that, you may spare the rest.</hi> Then, commanding him to rise, he laid himself on a Carpet, under a rich Pavillion, and remain’d a good while silent, and was hardly heard to sigh. When he was come a little to himself, the Messenger ask’d him leave to deliver that part of his Embassy, which the Prince had not yet devin’d: And the Prince cry’d, <hi>I permit thee—</hi>Then he told him the Affliction <pb n=”75″/>
the old King was in, for the Rashness he had committed in his Cruelty to <hi>Imoinda;</hi> and how he daign’d to ask Pardon for his Offence, and to implore the Prince wou’d not suffer that Loss to touch his Heart too sensibly, which now all the Gods cou’d not restore him, but might recompence him in Glory, which he begg’d he wou’d pursue; and that Death, that common Revenger of all Injuries, wou’d soon even the Account between him, and a feeble old Man.</p>
<hi>Oroonoko</hi> bad him return his Duty to his Lord and Master; and to assure him, there was no Account of Revenge to be adjusted between them; if there were, ’twas he was the Agressor, and that Death wou’d be just, and, maugre<note type=”gloss” In spite of.</note> his Age, wou’d see him righted; and he was contented to leave his Share of <pb n=”76″/>Glory to Youths more fortunate, and worthy of that Favour from the Gods. That henceforth he wou’d never lift a Weapon, or draw a Bow; but abandon the small Remains of his Life to Sighs and Tears, and the continual Thoughts of what his Lord and Grand-father had thought good to send out of the World, with all that Youth, that Innocence, and Beauty.</p>
<p>After having spoken this, whatever his greatest Officers, and Men of the best Rank could do, they cou’d not raise him from the Carpet, or perswade him to Action, and Resolutions of Life; but commanding all to retire, he shut himself into his Pavillion all that Day, while the Enemy was ready to engage; and wondring at the Delay, the whole Body of the chief<pb n=”77″/>of the Army then address’d themselves to him, and to whom they had much a-do to get Admittance. They fell on their Faces at the Foot of his Carpet; where they lay, and besought him with earnest Prayers and Tears, to lead ’em forth to Battel, and not let the Enemy take Advantages of them; and implor’d him to have regard to his Glory, and to the World, that depended on his Courage and Conduct. But he made no other Reply to all their Supplications but this, That he had now no more Business for Glory; and for the World, it was a Trifle not worth his Care. <hi>Go,</hi> (continu’d he, sighing) <hi>and divide it amongst you; and reap with Joy what you so vainly prize, and leave me to my more welcome Destiny.</hi>
<p>They then demanded what they shou’d do, and whom he
<pb n=”78″/> wou’d constitute in his Room, that the Confusion of ambitious Youth and Power might not ruin their Order, and make them a Prey to the Enemy. He reply’d, He wou’d not give himself the Trouble—; but wish’d ’em to chuse the bravest Man amongst ’em, let his Quality or Birth be what it wou’d: <hi>For, O my Friends</hi> (said he!) <hi>it is not Titles make Men brave, or good; or Birth that bestows Courage and Generosity, or makes the Owner happy. Believe this, when you behold</hi> Oroonoko, <hi>the most wretched, and abandon’d by Fortune, of all the Creation of the Gods.</hi> So turning himself about, he wou’d make no more Reply to all they cou’d urge or implore.</p>
<p>The Army beholding their Officers return unsuccessful, with sad Faces, and ominous Looks, that <pb n=”79″/>
presag’d no good Luck, suffer’d a thousand Fears to take Possession of their Hearts, and the Enemy to come even upon ’em, before they wou’d provide for their Safety, by any Defence; and though they were assur’d by some, who had a mind to animate ’em, that they shou’d be immediately headed by the Prince, and that in the mean time <hi>Aboan</hi> had Orders to command as General; yet they were so dismay’d for want of that great Example of Bravery, that they cou’d make but a very feeble Resistance; and at last, down-right, fled before the Enemy, who pursu’d ’em to the very Tents, killing ’em: Nor cou’d all <hi>Aboan</hi>’s Courage, which that Day gain’d him immortal Glory, shame ’em into a Manly Defence of themselves. The Guards that were left behind, <pb n=”80″/>about the Prince’s Tent, seeing the Soldiers flee before the Enemy, and scatter themselves all over the Plain, in great Disorder, made such Out-cries as rouz’d the Prince from his amorous Slumber, in which he had remain’d bury’d for two Days, without permitting any Sustenance to approach him: But, in spight of all his Resolutions, he had not the Constancy of Grief to that Degree, as to make him insensible of the Danger of his Army; and in that Instant he leap’d from his Couch, and cry’d,—<hi>Come, if we must die, let us meet Death the noblest Way; and ’twill be more like</hi> Oroonoko <hi>to encounter him at an Army’s Head, opposing the Torrent of a conquering Foe, than lazily, on a Couch, to wait his lingering Pleasure, and die every Moment by a thousand wrecking Thought; or be tamely taken by an</hi> <pb n=”81″/><hi>Enemy, and led a whining, Love-sick Slave, to adorn the Triumphs of</hi> Jamoan, <hi>that young Victor, who already is enter’d beyond the Limits I had prescrib d him.</hi>
<p>While he was speaking, he suffer’d his People to dress him for the Field; and sallying out of his Pavillion, with more Life and Vigour in his Countenance than ever he shew’d, he appear’d like some Divine Power descended to save his Country from Destruction; and his People had purposely put him on all things that might make him shine with most Splendor, to strike a reverend Awe into the Beholders. He flew into the thickest of those that were pursuing his Men; and being animated with Despair, he fought as if he came on purpose to die, and did such things as will not be believ’d that Humane <pb n=”82″/>
Strength cou’d perform; and such as soon inspir’d all the rest with new Courage, and new Order: And now it was, that they began to fight indeed; and so, as if they wou’d not be out-done, even by their ador’d <hi>Hero;</hi> who turning the Tide of the Victory, changing absolutely the Fate of the Day, gain’d an entire Conquest; and <hi>Oroonoko</hi> having the good Fortune to single out <hi>Jamoan,</hi> he took him Prisoner with his own Hand, having wounded him almost to death.</p>
<p>This <hi>Jamoan</hi> afterwards became very dear to him, being a Man very gallant, and of excellent Graces, and fine Parts; so that he never put him amongst the Rank of Captives, as they us’d to do, without distinction, for the common Sale, or Market; but kept him<pb n=”83″/> in his own Court, where he retain’d nothing of the Prisoner, but the Name, and return’d no more into his own Country, so great an Affection he took for <hi>Oroonoko;</hi> and by a thousand Tales and Adventures of Love and Gallantry, flatter’d his Disease of Melancholy and Languishment; which I have often heard him say, had certainly kill’d him, but for the Conversation of this Prince and <hi>Aboan,</hi> the <hi>French</hi> Governor he had from his Childhood, of whom I have spoken before, and who was a Man of admirable Wit, great Ingenuity and Learning; all which he had infus’d into his young Pupil. This <hi>French-</hi>Man was banish’d out of his own Country, for some Heretical Notions he held; and though he was a Man of very little Religion, he
<pb n=”84″/>
had admirable Morals, and a brave Soul.</p>
<p>After the total Defeat of <hi>Jamoan</hi>’s Army, which all fled, or were left dead upon the Place, they spent some time in the Camp; <hi>Oroonoko</hi> chusing rather to remain a while there in his Tents, than enter into a Place, or live in a Court where he had so lately suffer d so great a Loss. The Officers therefore, who saw and knew his Cause of Discontent, invented all sorts of Diversions and Sports, to entertain their Prince: So that what with those Amuzements abroad, and others at home, that is, within their Tents, with the Perswasions, Arguments and Care of his Friends and Servants that he more peculiarly priz’d, he wore off in time a great part of that <hi>Shagrien<note type=”gloss”> chagrin; that is, disappointment or vexation</note>,</hi> and Torture of Despair,<pb n=”85″/> which the first Efforts of <hi>Imoinda</hi>’s Death had given him: Insomuch as having receiv’d a thousand kind Embassies from the King, and Invitations to return to Court, he obey’d, though with no little Reluctancy; and when he did so, there was a visible Change in him, and for a long time he was much more melancholy than before. But Time lessens all Extreams, and reduces ’em to <hi>Mediums</hi> and Unconcern; but no Motives or Beauties, though all endeavour’d it, cou’d engage him in any sort of Amour, though he had all the Invitations to it, both from his own Youth, and others Ambitions and Designs.</p>
<hi>Oroonoko</hi> was no sooner return’d from this last Conquest, and receiv’d at Court with all the Joy <pb n=”86″/>
and Magnificence that cou’d be express’d to a young Victor, who was not only return’d triumphant, but belov’d like a Deity, when there arriv’d in the Port an <hi>English</hi> Ship.</p>
<p>This Person<note type=”gloss”> the commander of the ship </note> had often before been in these Countries, and was very well known to <hi>Oroonoko,</hi> with whom he had traffick’d for Slaves, and had us’d to do the same with his Predecessors.</p>
<p>This Commander was a Man of a finer sort of Address, and Conversation, better bred, and more engaging, than most of that sort of Men are; so that he seem’d rather never to have been bred out of a Court, than almost all his Life at Sea. This Captain therefore was always better receiv’d at Court, than most of the Traders to those Countries were; and <pb n=”87″/>especially by <hi>Oroonoko,</hi> who was more civiliz’d, according to the <hi>European</hi> Mode, than any other had been, and took more Delight in the <hi>White</hi> Nations; and, above all, Men of Parts and Wit. To this Captain he sold abundance of his Slaves; and for the Favour and Esteem he had for him, made him many Presents, and oblig’d him to stay at Court as long as possibly he cou’d. Which the Captain seem’d to take as a very great Honour done him, entertaining the Prince every Day with Globes and Maps, and Mathematical Discourses and Instruments; eating, drinking, hunting and living with him with so much Familiarity, that it was not to be doubted, but he had gain’d very greatly upon the Heart of this gallant young Man. And the Captain,<pb n=”88″/>in Return of all these mighty Favours, besought the Prince to honour his Vessel with his Presence, some Day or other, to Dinner, before he shou’d set Sail; which he condescended to accept, and appointed his Day. The Captain, on his part, fail’d not to have all things in a Readiness, in the most magnificent Order he cou’d possibly: And the Day being come, the Captain, in his Boat, richly adorn’d with Carpets and Velvet-Cushions, row’d to the Shoar to receive the Prince; with another Long-Boat, where was plac’d all his Musick and Trumpets, with which <hi>Oroonoko</hi> was extreamly delighted; who met him on the Shoar, attended by his <hi>French</hi> Governor, <hi>Jamoan, Aboan,</hi> and about an hundred of the noblest of the Youths of the<pb n=”89″/>Court: And after they had first carry’d the Prince on Board, the Boats fetch’d the rest off; where they found a very splendid Treat, with all sorts of fine Wines; and were as well entertain’d, as ’twas possible in such a place to be.</p>
<p>The Prince having drunk hard of Punch, and several Sorts of Wine, as did all the rest (for great Care was taken, they shou’d want nothing of that part of the Entertainment) was very merry, and in great Admiration of the Ship, for he had never been in one before; so that he was curious of beholding every place, where he decently might descend. The rest, no less curious, who were not quite overcome with Drinking, rambl’d at their pleasure <hi>Fore</hi> and <hi>Aft,</hi> as their Fancies guided ’em: So that the Captain, who had<pb n=”90″/> well laid his Design before, gave the Word, and seiz’d on all his Guests; they clapping great Irons suddenly on the Prince, when he was leap’d down in the Hold, to view that part of the Vessel; and locking him fast down, secur’d him. The same Treachery was us’d to all the rest; and all in one Instant, in several places of the Ship, were lash’d fast in Irons, and betray’d to Slavery. That great Design over, they set all Hands to work to hoise Sail; and with as treacherous and fair a Wind, they made from the Shoar with this innocent and glorious Prize, who thought of nothing less than such an Entertainment.</p>
<p>Some have commended this Act, as brave, in the Captain; but I will spare my Sence of it, and leave it to my Reader, to judge as he pleases.</p>
<pb n=”91″/>
It may be easily guess’d, in what manner the Prince resented this Indignity, who may be best resembl’d to a Lion taken in a Toil; so he rag’d, so he struggl’d for Liberty, but all in vain; and they had so wisely manag’d his Fetters, that he cou’d not use a Hand in his Defence, to quit himself of a Life that wou’d by no Means endure Slavery; nor cou’d he move from the Place, where he was ty’d, to any solid part of the Ship, against which he might have beat his Head, and have finish’d his Disgrace that way: So that being deprived of all other means, he resolved to perish for want of Food: And pleased at last with that Thought, and toil’d and tired by Rage and Indignation, he laid himself down, and sullenly resolved upon dying,<pb n=”92″/> and refused all things that were brought him.</p>
<p>This did not a little vex the Captain, and the more so, because, he found almost all of ’em of the same Humour; so that the loss of so many brave Slaves, so tall and goodly to behold, wou’d have been very considerable: He therefore order’d one to go from him (for he wou’d not be seen himself) to <hi>Oroonoko,</hi> and to assure him he was afflicted for having rashly done so unhospitable a Deed, and which cou’d not be now remedied, since they were far from shore; but since he resented it in so high a nature, he assur’d him he wou’d revoke his Resolution, and set both him and his Friends a-shore on the next Land they shou’d touch at; and of this the Messenger gave
<pb n=”93″/>
him his Oath, provided he wou’d resolve to live: And <hi>Oroonoko,</hi> whose Honour was such as he never had violated a Word in his Life himself, much less a solemn Asseveration; believ’d in an instant what this Man said, but reply’d, He expected for a Confirmation of this, to have his shameful Fetters dismiss’d. This Demand was carried to the <hi>Captain,</hi> who return’d him answer, That the Offence had been so great which he had put upon the Prince, that he durst not trust him with Liberty while he remained in the Ship, for fear lest by a Valour natural to him, and a Revenge that would animate that Valour, he might commit some Outrage fatal to himself and the <hi>King</hi> his Master, to whom his Vessel did belong. To this <hi>Oroonoko</hi> replied,<pb n=”94″ /> he would engage his Honour to behave himself in all friendly Order and Manner, and obey the Command of the <hi>Captain,</hi> as he was Lord of the <hi>King</hi>’s Vessel, and General of those Men under his Command.</p>
<p>This was deliver’d to the still doubting <hi>Captain,</hi> who could not resolve to trust a <hi>Heathen</hi> he said, upon his Parole<note type=”gloss” pledge, oath</note>, a Man that had no sence or notion of the God that he Worshipp’d. <hi>Oroonoko</hi> then replied, He was very sorry to hear that the <hi>Captain</hi> pretended to the Knowledge and Worship of any <hi>Gods,</hi> who had taught him no better Principles, than not to Credit as he would be Credited: but they told him the Difference of their Faith occasion’d that Distrust: For the <hi>Captain</hi> had protested to him upon the Word of a <hi>Christian,</hi><pb n=”95″/> and sworn in the Name of a Great <hi>GOD;</hi> which if he shou’d violate, he would expect eternal Torment in the World to come. <hi>Is that all the Obligation he has to be Just to his Oath,</hi> replied <hi>Oroonoko? Let him know I Swear by my Honour, which to violate, wou’d not only render me contemptible and despised by all brave and honest Men, and so give my self perpetual pain, but it wou’d be eternally offending and diseasing all Mankind, harming, betraying, circumventing and outraging all Men; but Punishments hereafter are suffer’d by ones self; and the World takes no cognizances whether this</hi> God <hi>have revenged em, or not, tis done so secretly, and deferr’d so long: While the Man of no Honour, suffers every moment the scorn and contempt of the honester World, and dies every day ignominiously in his Fame, which</hi><pb n=”96″/> <hi>is more valuable than Life: I speak not this to move Belief, but to shew you how you mistake, when you imagine, That he who will violate his Honour, will keep his Word with his</hi> Gods. So turning from him with a disdainful smile, he refused to answer him, when he urg’d him to know what Answer he shou’d carry back to his <hi>Captain;</hi> so that he departed without saying any more.</p>
<p>The <hi>Captain</hi> pondering and consulting what to do, it was concluded that nothing but <hi>Oroonoko</hi>’s Liberty wou’d encourage any of the rest to eat, except the <hi>French-</hi>man, whom the <hi>Captain</hi> cou’d not pretend to keep Prisoner, but only told him he was secured because he might act something in favour of the Prince, but that he shou’d be freed as soon <pb n=”97″/>
as they came to Land. So that they concluded it wholly necessary to free the Prince from his Irons, that he might show himself to the rest; that they might have an Eye upon him, and that they cou’d not fear a single Man.</p>
<p>This being resolv’d, to make the Obligation the greater, the Captain himself went to <hi>Oroonoko;</hi> where, after many Complements, and Assurances of what he had already promis’d, he receiving from the Prince his <hi>Parole,</hi> and his Hand, for his good Behaviour, dismiss’d his Irons, and brought him to his own Cabin; where, after having treated and repos’d him a while, for he had neither eat nor slept in four Days before, he besought him to visit those obstinate People in Chains, who refus’d all manner <pb n=”98″/>
of Sustenance; and intreated him to oblige ’em to eat, and assure ’em of their Liberty the first Opportunity.</p>
<hi>Oroonoko,</hi> who was too generous, not to give Credit to his Words, shew’d himself to his People, who were transported with Excess of Joy at the sight of their Darling Prince; falling at his Feet, and kissing and embracing ’em; believing, as some Divine Oracle, all he assur’d ’em. But he besought ’em to bear their Chains with that Bravery that became those whom he had seen act so nobly in Arms; and that they cou’d not give him greater Proofs of their Love and Friendship, since ’twas all the Security the Captain (his Friend) cou’d have, against the Revenge, he said, they might possibly justly take, for the <pb n=”99″/>
Injuries sustain’d by him. And they all, with one Accord, assur’d him, they cou’d not suffer enough, when it was for his Repose and Safety.</p>
<p>After this they no longer refus’d to eat, but took what was brought ’em, and were pleas’d with their Captivity, since by it they hop’d to redeem the Prince, who, all the rest of the Voyage, was treated with all the Respect due to his Birth, though nothing cou’d divert his Melancholy; and he wou’d often sigh for <hi>Imoinda,</hi> and think this a Punishment due to his Misfortune, in having left that noble Maid behind him, that fatal Night, in the <hi>Otan,</hi> when he fled to the Camp.</p>
<p>Possess’d with a thousand Thoughts of past Joys with this fair young Person, and a thousand <pb n=”100″/>
Griefs for her eternal Loss, he endur’d a tedious Voyage, and at last arriv’d at the Mouth of the River of <hi>Surinam,</hi> a Colony belonging to the King of <hi>England,</hi> and where they were to deliver some part of their Slaves. There the Merchants and Gentlemen of the Country going on Board, to demand those Lots of Slaves they had already agreed on; and, amongst those, the Over-seers of those Plantations where I then chanc’d to be, the Captain, who had given the Word, order’d his Men to bring up those noble Slaves in Fetters, whom I have spoken of; and having put ’em, some in one, and some in other Lots, with Women and Children (which they call <hi>Pickaninies<note type=”gloss”> dark-skinned children, usually of African descent. The term is likely a pidgin form of the Portuguese word pequenino.</note>,)</hi> they sold ’em off, as Slaves, to several Merchants and Gentlemen; not <pb n=”101″/>putting any two in one Lot, because they wou’d separate ’em far from each other; not daring to trust ’em together, lest Rage and Courage shou’d put ’em upon contriving some great Action, to the Ruin of the Colony.</p>
<hi>Oroonoko</hi> was first seiz’d on, and sold to our Over-seer, who had the first Lot, with seventeen more of all sorts and sizes; but not one of Quality with him. When he saw this, he found what they meant; for, as I said, he understood <hi>English</hi> pretty well; and being wholly unarm’d and defenceless, so as it was in vain to make any Resistance, he only beheld the Captain with a Look all fierce and disdainful, upbraiding him with Eyes, that forc’d Blushes on his guilty Cheeks, he only cry’d, in passing over the Side of the Ship, <pb n=”102″/><hi>Farewel, Sir: ‘Tis worth my Suffering, to gain so true a Knowledge both of you, and of your Gods by whom you swear.</hi> And desiring those that held him to forbear their pains, and telling ’em he wou’d make no Resistance, he cry’d, <hi>Come, my Fellow-Slaves; let as descend, and see if we can meet with more Honour and Honesty in the next World we shall touch upon.</hi> So he nimbly leap’d into the Boat, and shewing no more Concern, suffer’d himself to be row’d up the River, with his seventeen Companions.</p>
<p>The Gentleman that bought him was a young <hi>Cornish</hi> Gentleman, whose Name was <hi>Trefry;</hi> a Man of great Wit, and fine Learning, and was carry’d into those Parts by the Lord—Governor<note type=”gloss”> Lord Willoughby was the governor of Surinam and the owner of the Parham plantation. Trefy was there to oversee the plantation in Willoughby’s absence.</note>, to manage all his Affairs. He reflecting on the last Words of <hi>Oroonoko</hi> to the <pb n=”103″/>Captain, and beholding the Richness of his Vest<note type=”gloss”> clothing</note>, no sooner came into the Boat, but he fix’d his Eyes on him; and finding something so extraordinary in his Face, his Shape and Mien, a Greatness of Look, and Haughtiness in his Air, and finding he spoke <hi>English,</hi> had a great mind to be enquiring into his Quality and Fortune; which, though <hi>Oroonoko</hi> endeavour’d to hide, by only confessing he was above the Rank of common Slaves, <hi>Trefry</hi> soon found he was yet something greater than he confess’d; and from that Moment began to conceive so vast an Esteem for him, that he ever after lov’d him as his dearest Brother, and shew’d him all the Civilities due to so great a Man.</p>
<hi>Trefry</hi> was a very good Mathematician, and a Linguist; cou’d<pb n=”104″/> speak <hi>French</hi> and <hi>Spanish;</hi> and in the three Days they remain’d in the Boat (for so long were they going from the Ship, to the Plantation) he entertain’d <hi>Oroonoko</hi> so agreeably with his Art and Discourse, that he was no less pleas’d with <hi>Trefry,</hi> than he was with the Prince; and he thought himself, at least, fortunate in this, that since he was a Slave, as long as he wou’d suffer himself to remain so, he had a Man of so excellent Wit and Parts for a Master: So that before they had finish’d their Voyage up the River, he made no scruple of declaring to <hi>Trefry</hi> all his Fortunes, and most part of what I have here related, and put himself wholly into the Hands of his new Friend, whom he found resenting all the Injuries were done him, and was charm’d with all the Greatnesses of his Actions; <pb n=”105″/>which were recited with that Modesty, and delicate Sence, as wholly vanquish’d him, and subdu’d him to his Interest. And he promis’d him on his Word and Honour, he wou’d find the Means to re-conduct him to his own Country again: assuring him, he had a perfect Abhorrence of so dishonourable an Action; and that he wou’d sooner have dy’d, than have been the Author of such a Perfidy. He found the Prince was very much concern’d to know what became of his Friends, and how they took their Slavery; and <hi>Trefry</hi> promis’d to take care about the enquiring after their Condition, and that he shou’d have an Account of ’em.</p>
<p>Though, as <hi>Oroonoko</hi> afterwards said, he had little Reason to credit the Words of a <hi>Backearary<note type=”gloss”>an altered from of bakra, buckra, or buccra, a word used in Surinam for master.</note>,</hi> yet he knew not why; but he saw a kind<pb n=”106″/> of Sincerity, and awful Truth in the Face of <hi>Trefry;</hi> he saw an Honesty in his Eyes, and he found him wise and witty enough to understand Honour; for it was one of his Maxims, <hi>A Man of Wit cou’d not be a Knave or Villain.</hi>
<p>In their passage up the River<note type=”gloss”> the Suriname River</note>, they put in at several Houses for Refreshment; and ever when they landed, numbers of People wou’d flock to behold this Man; not but their Eyes were daily entertain’d with the sight of Slaves, but the Fame of <hi>Oroonoko</hi> was gone before him, and all People were in Admiration of his Beauty. Besides, he had a rich Habit on, in which he was taken, so different from the rest, and which the Captain cou’d not strip him of, because he was forc’d to surprize his Person in the Minute he sold him. When he found his<pb n=”107″/> Habit made him liable, as he thought, to be gaz’d at the more, he begg’d <hi>Trefry</hi> to give him something more befitting a Slave; which he did, and took off his Robes. Nevertheless, he shone through all; and his <hi>Osenbrigs</hi><note type=”gloss”>a kind of coarse linen used for hard-wearing clothing that was produced in Osnabruck, Germany. (OED)</note> (a sort of brown <hi>Holland</hi> Suit he had on) cou’d not conceal the Graces of his Looks and Mien; and he had no less Admirers, than when he had his dazeling Habit on: The Royal Youth appear’d in spight of the Slave, and People cou’d not help treating him after a different manner, without designing it: As soon as they approach’d him, they venerated and esteem’d him; his Eyes insensibly commanded Respect, and his Behaviour insinuated it into every Soul. So that there was nothing talk’d of but this young and gallant Slave, even by those who yet knew not that he was a Prince.</p>
<pb n=”108″/>
I ought to tell you, that the <hi>Christians</hi> never buy any Slaves but they give ’em some Name of their own, their native ones being likely very barbarous, and hard to pronounce; so that Mr. <hi>Trefry</hi> gave <hi>Oroonoko</hi> that of <hi>Caesar;</hi><note type=”gloss”>Slaves were often given the names of powerful Romans, which was often a way of mocking their profound lack of power. Here, too, as Janet Todd notes, Behn sometimes referred to James II as Caesar, so this forms another link between Oroonoko and the Stuart monarchy.</note> which Name will live in that Country as long as that (scarce more) glorious one of the great <hi>Roman;</hi> for ’tis most evident, he wanted no part of the Personal Courage of that <hi>Caesar,</hi> and acted things as memorable, had they been done in some part of the World replenish’d with People, and Historians, that might have given him his due. But his Misfortune was, to fall in an obscure World, that afforded only a Female Pen to celebrate his Fame; though I doubt not but it had liv’d from others Endeavours, if the <hi>Dutch,</hi> who, immediately after his <pb n=”109″/>Time, took that Country<note type=”gloss”> Surinam was turned over to the Dutch in the Treaty of Breda in 1667, just after the action of this story takes place.</note>, had not kill’d, banish’d and dispers’d all those that were capable of giving the World this great Man’s Life, much better than I have done. And Mr. <hi>Trefry,</hi> who design’d it, dy’d before he began it; and bemoan’d himself for not having undertook it in time.</p>
<p>For the future therefore, I must call <hi>Oroonoko, Caesar,</hi> since by that Name only he was known in our Western World, and by that Name he was receiv’d on Shoar at <hi>Parham-House<note type=”gloss”>The main house on the Parham plantation.</note>,</hi> where he was destin’d a Slave. But if the King himself (God bless him) had come a-shore, there cou’d not have been greater Expectations by all the whole Plantation, and those neighbouring ones, than was on ours at that time; and he was receiv’d more like a Governor, than <pb n=”110″/>
a Slave. Notwithstanding, as the Custom was, they assign’d him his Portion of Land, his House, and his Business, up in the Plantation. But as it was more for Form, than any Design, to put him to his Task, he endur’d no more of the Slave but the Name, and remain’d some Days in the House, receiving all Visits that were made him, without stirring towards that part of the Plantation where the <hi>Negroes</hi> were.</p>
<p>At last, he wou’d needs go view his Land, his House, and the Business assign’d him. But he no sooner came to the Houses of the Slaves, which are like a little Town by it self, the <hi>Negroes</hi> all having left Work, but they all came forth to behold him, and found he was that Prince who had, at several times, sold most of ’em to these
<pb n=”111″/> Parts; and, from a Veneration they pay to great Men, especially if they know ’em, and from the Surprize and Awe they had at the sight of him, they all cast themselves at his Feet, crying out, in their Language, <hi>Live, O King! Long live, O King!</hi> And kissing his Feet, paid him even Divine Homage.</p>
<p>Several <hi>English</hi> Gentlemen were with him; and what Mr. <hi>Trefry</hi> had told ’em, was here confirm’d; of which he himself before had no other Witness than <hi>Caesar</hi> himself: But he was infinitely glad to find his Grandure confirm’d by the Adoration of all the Slaves.</p>
<hi>Caesar</hi> troubl’d with their Over-Joy, and Over-Ceremony, besought ’em to rise, and to receive him as their Fellow-Slave; assuring them, he was no better. At which <pb n=”112″/>
they set up with one Accord a most terrible and hidious Mourning and condoling, which he and the <hi>English</hi> had much a-do to appease; but at last they prevail’d with ’em, and they prepar’d all their barbarous Musick, and every one kill’d and dress’d something of his own Stock (for every Family has their Land apart, on which, at their leisuretimes, they breed all eatable things;) and clubbing it together, made a most magnificent Supper, inviting their <hi>Grandee<note type=”gloss”> A Spanish or Portugese nobleman of the highest rank (OED).</note> Captain,</hi> their <hi>Prince,</hi> to honour it with his Presence; which he did, and several <hi>English</hi> with him; where they all waited on him, some playing, others dancing before him all the time, according to the Manners of their several Nations; and with unwearied Industry, endeavouring to please and delight him.</p>
<pb n=”129″/><note type=”gloss”> In the first edition, there is a page number skip from page 112 to page 129. One possible explanation for this as that a sheet, which would have had exactly sixteen pages in the original octavo format of this book, was removed for corrections. When he returned the sheet with the corrected type, the printed continued with the original pagination of the preceding sheet, perhaps forgetting that sixteen page numbers would then be missing. No text is missing; it’s simply an error in pagination.</note>
While they sat at Meat Mr. <hi>Trefry</hi> told <hi>Caesar,</hi> that most of these young <hi>Slaves</hi> were undon in Love, with a fine she <hi>Slave,</hi> whom they had had about Six Months on their Land; the <hi>Prince,</hi> who never heard the Name of <hi>Love</hi> without a Sigh, nor any mention of it without the Curiosity of examining further into that tale, which of all Discourses was most agreeable to him, asked, how they came to be so Unhappy, as to be all Undon for one fair <hi>Slave? Trefry,</hi> who was naturally Amorous, and lov’d to talk of Love as well as any body, proceeded to tell him, they had the most charming Black that ever was beheld on their <hi>Plantation,</hi> about Fifteen or Sixteen Years old, as he guest; that, for his part, he had done nothing but Sigh for her <pb n=”130″/>ever since she came; and that all the white Beautys he had seen, never charm’d him so absolutely as this fine Creature had done; and that no Man, of any Nation, ever beheld her, that did not fall in Love with her; and that she had all the <hi>Slaves</hi> perpetually at her Feet; and the whole Country resounded with the Fame of <hi>Clemene,</hi> for so, said he, we have Christ’ned her: But she denys us all with such a noble Disdain, that ’tis a Miracle to see, that she, who can give such eternal Desires, shou’d herself be all Ice, and all Unconcern. She is adorn’d with the most Graceful Modesty that ever beautifyed Youth; the softest Sigher—that, if she were capable of Love, one would swear she languish’d for some absent happy Man; and<pb n=”131″/> so retir’d, as if she fear’d a Rape even from the God of Day; or that the Breezes would steal Kisses from her delicate Mouth. Her Task of Work some sighing Lover every day makes it his Petition to perform for her, which she excepts blushing, and with reluctancy, for fear he will ask her a Look for a Recompence, which he dares not presume to hope; so great an Awe she strikes into the Hearts of her Admirers. <hi>I do not wonder,</hi> replied the Prince, <hi>that</hi> Clemene <hi>shou’d refuse Slaves, being as you say so Beautiful, but wonder how she escapes those who can entertain her as you can do; or why, being your Slave, you do not oblige her to yield. I confess,</hi> said <hi>Trefry, when I have, against her will, entertain’d her with Love so long, as to be transported</hi><pb n=”132″/> <hi>with my Passion; even above Decency, I have been ready to make use of those advantages of Strength and Force Nature has given me. But oh! she disarms me, with that Modesty and Weeping so tender and so moving, that I retire, and thank my Stars she overcame me.</hi> The Company laught at his Civility to a <hi>Slave,</hi> and <hi>Caesar</hi> only applauded the nobleness of his Passion and Nature; since that Slave might be Noble, or, what was better, have true Notions of Honour and Vertue in her. Thus past they this Night, after having received, from the <hi>Slaves,</hi> all imaginable Respect and Obedience.</p>
<p>The next Day <hi>Trefry</hi> ask’d <hi>Caesar</hi> to walk, when the heat was allay’d, and designedly carried him by the Cottage of the <hi>fair Slave;</hi> and <pb n=”133″/>told him, she whom he spoke of last Night liv’d there retir’d. <hi>But,</hi> says he, <hi>I would not wish you to approach, for, I am sure, you will be in Love as soon as you behold her. Caesar</hi> assur’d him, he was proof against all the Charms of that Sex; and that if he imagin’d his Heart cou’d be so perfidious to Love again, after <hi>Imoinda,</hi> he believ’d he shou’d tear it from his Bosom: They had no sooner spoke, but a little shock Dog, that <hi>Clemene</hi> had presented her, which she took great Delight in, ran out; and she, not knowing any body was there, ran to get it in again, and bolted out on those who were just Speaking of her: When seeing them, she wou’d have run in again; but <hi>Trefry</hi> caught her by the Hand, and cry’d, Clemene, <hi>however you</hi><pb n=”134″/> <hi>fly a Lover, you ought to pay some Respect to this Stranger:</hi> (pointing to <hi>Caesar)</hi> But she, as if she had resolv’d never to raise her Eyes to the Face of a Man again, bent ’em the more to the Earth, when he spoke, and gave the <hi>Prince</hi> the Leasure to look the more at her. There needed no long Gazing, or Consideration, to examin who this fair Creature was; he soon saw <hi>Imoinda</hi> all over her; in a Minute he saw her Face, her Shape, her Air, her Modesty, and all that call’d forth his Soul with Joy at his Eyes, and left his Body destitute of almost Life; it stood without Motion, and, for a Minute, knew not that it had a Being; and, I believe, he had never come to himself, so opprest he was with over-Joy, if he had not met <pb n=”135″/> with this Allay, that he perceiv’d <hi>Imoinda</hi> fall dead in the Hands of <hi>Trefry:</hi> this awaken’d him, and he ran to her aid, and caught her in his Arms, where, by degrees, she came to herself; and ’tis needless to tell with what transports, what extasies of Joy, they both a while beheld each other, without Speaking; then Snatcht each other to their Arms; then Gaze again, as if they still doubted whether they possess’d the Blessing: They Graspt, but when they recovered their Speech, ’tis not to be imagin’d, what tender things they exprest to each other; wondering what strange Fate had brought ’em again together. They soon inform’d each other of their Fortunes, and equally bewail’d their Fate; but, at the same<pb n=”136″/> time, they mutually protested, that even Fetters and Slavery were Soft and Easy; and wou’d be supported with Joy and Pleasure, while they cou’d be so happy to possess each other, and to be able to make good their Vows. <hi>Caesar</hi> swore he disdain’d the Empire of the World, while he cou’d behold his <hi>Imoinda;</hi> and she despis’d Grandure and Pomp, those Vanities of her Sex, when she cou’d Gaze on <hi>Oroonoko.</hi> He ador’d the very Cottage where she resided, and said, That little Inch of the World wou’d give him more Happiness than all the Universe cou’d do; and she vow’d, It was a Pallace, while adorn’d with the Presence of <hi>Oroonoko.</hi>
<hi>Trefry</hi> was infinitely pleas’d with this Novel<note type=”gloss”>To Behn and her readers, the word “novel” would have been associated with short romantic stories set among the aristocracy; the story of Oroonoko and Imoinda that Trefy has just heard fits that definition. “Novel” only gained its modern sense decades later.</note><hi>Clemene</hi><pb n=”137″/> was the Fair Mistress of whom <hi>Caesar</hi> had before spoke; and was not a little satisfied, that Heaven was so kind to the <hi>Prince,</hi> as to sweeten his Misfortunes by so lucky an Accident; and leaving the Lovers to themselves, was impatient to come down to <hi>Parham House,</hi> (which was on the same <hi>Plantation)</hi> to give me an Account of what had hapned. I was as impatient to make these Lovers a Visit, having already made a Friendship with <hi>Caesar;</hi> and from his own Mouth learn’d what I have related, which was confirmed by his French-man, who was set on Shore to seek his Fortunes; and of whom they cou’d not make a Slave, because a Christian; and he came daily to <hi>Parham Hill</hi> to see and pay his Respects<pb n=”138″/> to his Purple <hi>Prince:</hi> So that concerning and intresting my self, in all that related to <hi>Caesar,</hi> whom I had assur’d of Liberty, as soon as the Governor arriv’d, I hasted presently to the Place where the Lovers were, and was infinitely glad to find this Beautiful young <hi>Slave</hi> (who had already gain’d all our Esteems, for her Modesty and her extraordinary Prettyness) to be the same I had heard <hi>Caesar</hi> speak so much off. One may imagine then, we paid her a treble Respect; and though from her being carv’d in fine Flowers and Birds all over her Body, we took her to be of Quality before, yet, when we knew <hi>Clemene</hi> was <hi>Imoinda,</hi> we cou’d not enough admire her.</p>
<p>I had forgot to tell you, that <pb n=”139″/> those who are Nobly born of that Country, are so delicately Cut and Rac’d<note type=”gloss”> To cut or slash (a shoe, item of clothing) for decorative purposes. Obs. (OED, “race”)</note> all over the fore-part of the Trunk of their Bodies, that it looks as if it were Japan’d<note type=”gloss”> lacquered, or covered with a glossy material; in this period, highly-lacquered glossy black surfaces were associated with Japan, which exported such goods to Europe.</note>; the Works being raised like high Poynt round the Edges of the Flowers: Some are only Carv’d with a little Flower, or Bird, at the Sides of the Temples, as was <hi>Caesar;</hi> and those who are so Carv’d over the Body, resemble our Ancient <hi>Picts,</hi><note type=”gloss”>The Picts were an ancient tribe in the northern part of Britain who painted and tattooed their bodies. The engravings of Picts in Thomas Hariot’s A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1588) are accompanied by the comment that “the markings of the Picts were similar to those of the Native Americans in Virginia.”</note> that are figur’d in the Chronicles, but these Carvings are more delicate.</p>
<p>From that happy Day <hi>Caesar</hi> took <hi>Clemene</hi> for his Wife, to the general Joy of all People; and there was as much Magnificence as the Country wou’d afford at the Celebration of this Wedding: and in a very short time after she <pb n=”140″/>conceiv’d with Child; which made <hi>Caesar</hi> even adore her, knowing he was the last of his Great Race. This new Accident made him more Impatient of Liberty, and he was every Day treating with <hi>Trefry</hi> for his and <hi>Clemene’s</hi> Liberty; and offer’d either Gold, or a vast quantity of Slaves, which shou’d be paid before they let him go, provided he cou’d have any Security that he shou’d go when his Ransom was paid: They fed him from Day to Day with Promises, and delay’d him, till the Lord Governor shou’d come; so that he began to suspect them of falshood, and that they wou’d delay him till the time of his Wives delivery, and make a Slave of that too, For all the Breed is<pb n=”141″/> theirs to whom the Parents belong: This Thought made him very uneasy, and his Sullenness gave them some Jealousies of him; so that I was oblig’d, by some Persons, who fear’d a Mutiny (which is very Fatal sometimes in those Colonies, that abound so with Slaves, that they exceed the Whites in vast Numbers) to discourse with <hi>Caesar,</hi> and to give him all the Satisfaction I possibly cou’d; they knew he and <hi>Clemene</hi> were scarce an Hour in a Day from my Lodgings; that they eat with me, and that I oblig’d ’em in all things I was capable of: I entertain’d him with the Lives of the Romans, and great Men, which charm’d him to my Company; and her, with teaching her all the pretty Works that I was Mistress <pb n=”142″/>of; and telling her Stories of Nuns, and endeavoring to bring her to the knowledge of the true God. But of all Discourses <hi>Caesar</hi> lik’d that the worst, and wou’d never be reconcil’d to our Notions of the Trinity, of which he ever made a Jest; it was a Riddle, he said, wou’d turn his Brain to conceive, and one cou’d not make him understand what Faith was. However, these Conversations fail’d not altogether so well to divert him, that he lik’d the Company of us Women much above the Men; for he cou’d not Drink; and he is but an ill Companion in that Country that cannot: So that obliging him to love us very well, we had all the Liberty of Speech with him, especially my self, whom he call’d <pb n=”143″/> his <hi>Great Mistress;</hi> and indeed my Word wou’d go a great way with him. For these Reasons, I had Opportunity to take notice to him, that he was not well pleasd of late, as he us’d to be; was more retir’d and thoughtful; and told him, I took it Ill he shou’d Suspect we wou’d break our Words with him, and not permit both him and <hi>Clemene</hi> to return to his own Kingdom, which was not so long a way, but when he was once on his Voyage he wou’d quickly arrive there. He made me some Answers that shew’d a doubt in him, which made me ask him, what advantage it wou’d be to doubt? it would but give us a Fear of him, and possibly compel us to treat him so as I shou’d be<pb n=”144″/> very loath to behold: that is, it might occasion his Confinement. Perhaps this was not so Luckily spoke of me, for I perceiv’d he resented that Word, which I strove to Soften again in vain: However, he assur’d me, that whatsoever Resolutions he shou’d take, he wou’d Act nothing upon the White-People; and as for my self, and those upon that <hi>Plantation</hi> where he was, he wou’d sooner forfeit his eternal Liberty, and Life it self, than lift his Hand against his greatest Enemy on that Place: He besought me to suffer no Fears upon his Account, for he cou’d do nothing that Honour shou’d not dictate; but he accus’d himself for having suffer’d Slavery so long; yet he charg’d that weakness on Love alone, who<pb n=”145″/> was capable of making him neglect even Glory it self; and, for which, now he reproches himself every moment of the Day. Much more to this effect he spoke, with an Air impatient enough to make me know he wou’d not be long in Bondage; and though he suffer’d only the Name of a Slave, and had nothing of the Toil and Labour of one, yet that was sufficient to render him Uneasy; and he had been too long Idle, who us’d to be always in Action, and in Arms: He had a Spirit all Rough and Fierce, and that cou’d not be tam’d to lazy Rest; and though all endeavors were us’d to exercise himself in such Actions and Sports as this World afforded, as Running, Wrastling, Pitching the Bar, Hunting and Fishing,<pb n=”146″/> Chasing and Killing <hi>Tigers</hi> of a monstrous Size, which this Continent affords in abundance; and wonderful <hi>Snakes,</hi> such as <hi>Alexander</hi> is reported to have incounter’d at the River of <hi>Amazons,</hi> and which <hi>Caesar</hi> took great Delight to overcome; yet these were not Actions great enough for his large Soul, which was still panting after more renown’d Action.</p><note type=”gloss”> The reference here is to Alexander the Great, who by legend met Thallestris, the Queen of the Amazons, a race of female warriors, whose home was near the river Jaxartes, which reportedly had brightly-colored poisonous snakes. There is no historical evidence for this, but the stories were told over and over again in historical romances from antiquity onwards, which is the context that Behn is invoking here.</note>
<p>Before I parted that Day with him, I got, with much ado, a Promise from him to rest yet a little longer with Patience, and wait the coming of the Lord Governor, who was every Day expected on our Shore; he assur’d me he wou’d, and this Promise he desired me to know was given perfectly in Complaisance to me,<pb n=”147″/>in whom he had an intire Confidence.</p>
<p>After this, I neither thought it convenient to trust him much out of our View, nor did the Country who fear’d him; but with one accord it was advis’d to treat him Fairly, and oblige him to remain within such a compass, and that he shou’d be permitted, as seldom as cou’d be, to go up to the Plantations of the Negroes; or, if he did, to be accompany’d by some that shou’d be rather in appearance Attendants than Spys. This Care was for some time taken, and <hi>Caesar</hi> look’d upon it as a Mark of extraordinary Respect, and was glad his discontent had oblig’d ’em to be more observant to him; he received new assurance from <pb n=”148″/>the Overseer, which was confirmed to him by the Opinion of all the Gentlemen of the Country, who made their court to him: During this time that we had his Company more frequently than hitherto we had had, it may not be unpleasant to relate to you the Diversions we entertain’d him with, or rather he us.</p>
<p>My stay was to be short in that Country, because my Father dy’d at Sea, and never arriv’d to possess the Honour was design’d him, (which was Lieutenant-General of Six and thirty Islands, besides the Continent of <hi>Surinam)</hi> nor the advantages he hop’d to reap by them; so that though we were oblig’d to continue on our Voyage, we did not <pb n=”149″/>intend to stay upon the Place: Though, in a Word, I must say thus much of it, That certainly had his late Majesty, of sacred Memory, but seen and known what a vast and charming World he had been Master off in that Continent, he would never have parted so Easily with it to the <hi>Dutch.</hi> ‘Tis a Continent whose vast Extent was never yet known, and may contain more Noble Earth than all the Universe besides; for, they say, it reaches from East to West; one Way as far as <hi>China,</hi> and another to <hi>Peru:</hi> It affords all things both for Beauty and Use; ’tis there Eternal Spring, always the very Months of <hi>April, May</hi> and <hi>June;</hi> the Shades are perpetual, the Trees, bearing at once all degrees of Leaves and Fruit,<pb n=”150″/> from blooming Buds to ripe Autumn; Groves of Oranges, Limons, Citrons, Figs, Nutmegs, and noble Aromaticks, continually bearing their Fragrancies. The Trees appearing all like Nosegays<note type=”gloss”> fragrant bouquets</note> adorn’d with Flowers of different kind; some are all White, some Purple, some Scarlet, some Blew, some Yellow; bearing, at the same time, Ripe Fruit and Blooming Young, or producing every Day new. The very Wood of all these Trees have an intrinsick Value above common Timber; for they are, when cut, of different Colours, glorious to behold; and bear a Price considerable, to inlay withal. Besides this, they yield rich Balm, and Gums; so that we make our Candles of such an Aromatick Substance, as<pb n=”151″/> does not only give a sufficient Light, but, as they Burn, they cast their Perfumes all about. Cedar is the common Firing, and all the Houses are built with it. The very Meat we eat, when set on the Table, if it be Native, I mean of the Country, perfumes the whole Room; especially a little Beast call’d an <hi>Armadilly,</hi> a thing which I can liken to nothing so well as a <hi>Rhinoceros;</hi> ’tis all in white Armor so joynted, that it moves as well in it, as if it had nothing on; this Beast is about the bigness of a Pig of Six Weeks old. But it were endless to give an Account of all the divers Wonderfull and Strange things that Country affords, and which we took a very great Delight to go in search of; though <pb n=”152″/>those adventures are oftentimes Fatal and at least Dangerous: But while we had <hi>Caesar</hi> in our Company on these Designs we fear’d no harm, nor suffer’d any.</p>
<p>As soon as I came into the Country, the best House in it was presented me, call’d St. <hi>John’s Hill.</hi> It stood on a vast Rock of white Marble, at the Foot of which the River ran a vast depth down, and not to be descended on that side; the little Waves still dashing and washing the foot of this Rock, made the softest Murmurs and Purlings in the World; and the Oposite Bank was adorn’d with such vast quantities of different Flowers eternally Blowing, and every Day and Hour new, fenc’d behind ’em with lofty Trees of a Thousand rare<pb n=”153″/> Forms and Colours, that the Prospect was the most raving that Sands can create. On the Edge of this white Rock, towards the River, was a Walk or Grove of Orange and Limon Trees, about half the length of the Mall here<note type=”gloss”> Pall Mall, one of the straightest avenues in London, well known in Behn’s era as a place for the socially ambitious to promenade.</note>, whose Flowery and Fruity bear Branches meet at the top, and hinder’d the Sun, whose Rays are very fierce there, from entering a Beam into the Grove; and the cool Air that came from the River made it not only fit to entertain People in, at all the hottest Hours of the Day, but refresh’d the sweet Blossoms, and made it always Sweet and harming; and sure the whole Globe of the World cannot show so delightful a Place as this Grove was: Not all the Gardens of boasted<pb n=”154″/> <hi>Italy</hi> cen produce a Shade to outvie this, which Nature had joyn’d with Art to render so exceeding Fine; and ’tis a marvel to see how such vast Trees, as big as English Oaks, cou’d take footing on so solid a Rock, and in so little Earth, as cover’d that Rock but all things by Nature there are Rare, Delightful and Wonderful. But to our Sports;</p>
<p>Sometimes we wou’d go surprizing, and in search of young <hi>Tigers</hi><note type=”gloss”>There are, of course, no tigers in Surinam, so either Behn is thinking of some other kind of large carnivore such a jaguar (which do exist in Surinam), or is fancifully adding this detail.</note> in their Dens, watching when the old Ones went forth to forage for Prey; and oftentimes we have been in great Danger, and have fled apace for our Lives, when surpriz’d by the Dams<note type=”gloss”> mothers</note>. But once, above all other times, we went on this Design, and <hi>Caesar</hi> was with us, who had no sooner<pb n=”155″/>stol’n a young <hi>Tiger</hi> from her Nest, but going off, we incounter’d the Dam, bearing a Buttock of a Cow, which he had torn off with his mighty Paw, and going with it towards his <hi>Den;</hi> we had only four Women, <hi>Caesar,</hi> and an English Gentleman, Brother to <hi>Harry Martin,</hi> the great <hi>Oliverian;</hi><note type=”gloss”>follower of Oliver Cromwell, the leader of the Parliamentary forces in the Civil War and head of the Commonwealth government that ruled England in the 1650s.</note> we found there was no escaping this inrag’d and ravenous Beast. However, we Women fled as fast as we cou’d from it; but our Heels had not sav’d our Lives, if <hi>Caesar</hi> had not laid down his <hi>Cub,</hi> when he found the <hi>Tiger</hi> quit her Prey to make the more speed towards him; and taking Mr. <hi>Martin</hi>’s Sword desir’d him to stand aside, or follow the Ladies. He obey’d him, and <hi>Caesar</hi> met this monstrous<pb n=”156″/> Beast of might, size, and vast Limbs, who came with open Jaws upon him; and fixing his Awful stern Eyes full upon those of the Beast, and putting himself into a very steddy and good aiming posture of Defence, ran his Sword quite through his Breast down to his very Heart, home to the Hilt of the Sword; the dying Beast stretch’d forth her Paw, and going to grasp his Thigh, surpris’d with Death in that very moment, did him no other harm than fixing her long Nails in his Flesh very deep, feebly wounded him, but cou’d not grasp the Flesh to tear off any. When he had done this, he hollow’d to us to return; which, after some assurance of his Victory, we did, and found him lugging<pb n=”157″/> out the Sword from the Bosom of the <hi>Tiger,</hi> who was laid in her Bloud on the Ground; he took up the <hi>Cub,</hi> and with an unconcern, that had nothing of the Joy or Gladness of a Victory, he came and laid the Whelp at my Feet: We all extreamly wonder’d at his Daring, and at the Bigness of the Beast, which was about the highth of an Heifer, but of mighty, great, and strong Limbs.</p>
<p>Another time, being in the Woods, he kill’d a <hi>Tiger,</hi> which had long infested that part, and born away abundance of Sheep and Oxen, and other things, that were for the support of those to whom they belong’d; abundance of People assail’d this Beast, some affirming they had shot her<pb n=”158″/> with several Bullets quite through the Body, at several times; and some swearing they shot her through the very Heart, and they believ’d she was a Devil rather than a Mortal thing. <hi>Caesar,</hi> had often said, he had a mind to encounter this Monster, and spoke with several Gentlemen who had attempted her; one crying, I shot her with so many poyson’d Arrows, another with his Gun in this part of her, and another in that; so that he remarking all these Places where she was shot, fancy’d still he shou’d overcome her, by giving her another sort of a Wound than any had yet done; and one day said (at the Table) <hi>What Trophies and Garlands Ladies will you make me, if I bring you home the Heart of</hi> <pb n=”159″/> <hi>this Ravenous Beast, that eats up all your Lambs and Pigs?</hi> We all promis’d he shou’d be rewarded at all our Hands. So taking a Bow, which he chus’d out of a great many, he went up in the Wood with two Gentlemen, where he imagin’d this Devourer to be; they had not past very far in it, but they heard her Voice, growling and grumbling, as if she were pleas’d with something she was doing. When they came in view, they found her muzzling in the Belly of a new ravish’d Sheep, which she had torn open; and seeing herself approach’d, she took fast hold of her Prey, with her fore Paws, and set a very fierce raging Look on <hi>Caesar,</hi> without offering to approach him; for fear, at the<pb n=”160″/> same time, of loosing what she had in Possession. So that <hi>Caesar</hi> remain’d a good while, only taking aim, and getting an opportunity to shoot her where he design’d; ’twas some time before he cou’d accomplish it, and to wound her, and not kill her, wou’d but have enrag’d her more, and indanger’d him: He had a Quiver of Arrows at his side, so that if one fail’d he cou’d be supply’d; at last, retiring a little, he gave her opportunity to eat, for he found she was Ravenous, and fell too as soon as she saw him retire; being more eager of her Prey than of doing new Mischiefs. When he going softly to one side of her, and hiding his Person behind certain Herbage that grew high and thick, <pb n=”161″/>he took so good aim, that, as he intended, he shot her just into the Eye, and the Arrow was sent with so good a will, and so sure a hand, that it stuck in her Brain, and made her caper, and become mad for a moment or two; but being seconded by another Arrow, he fell dead upon the Prey: <hi>Caesar</hi> cut him Open with a Knife, to see where those Wounds were that had been reported to him, and why he did not Die of ’em. But I shall now relate a thing that possibly will find no Credit among Men, because ’tis a Notion commonly receiv’d with us, That nothing can receive a Wound in the Heart and Live; but when the Heart of this courageous Animal was taken out, there were Seven<pb n=”162″/> Bullets of Lead in it, and the Wounds seam’d up with great Scars, and she liv’d with the Bullets a great while, for it was long since they were shot: This Heart the Conqueror brought up to us, and ’twas a very great Curiosity, which all the Country came to see; and which gave <hi>Caesar</hi> occasion of many fine Discourses; of Accidents in War, and Strange Escapes.</p>
<p>At other times he wou’d go a Fishing; and discoursing on that Diversion, he found we had in that Country a very Strange Fish, call’d, a <hi>Numb Eel,</hi><note type=”gloss”> an electric eel</note> (an <hi>Eel</hi> of which I have eaten) that while it is alive, it has a quality so Cold, that those who are Angling, though with a Line of never so great a length, with a Rod <pb n=”163″/>at the end of it, it shall, in the same minute the Bait is touched by this <hi>Eel,</hi> seize him or her that holds the Rod with benumb’dness, that shall deprive ’em of Sense, for a while; and some have fall’n into the Water, and others drop’d as dead on the Banks of the Rivers where they stood, as soon as this Fish touches the Bait. <hi>Caesar</hi> us’d to laugh at this, and believ’d it impossible a Man cou’d loose his Force at the touch of a Fish; and cou’d not understand that Philosophy, that a cold Quality should be of that Nature: However, he had a great Curiosity to try whether it wou’d have the same effect on him it had on others, and often try’d, but in vain; at last, the sought for<pb n=”164″/> Fish came to the Bait, as he stood Angling on the Bank; and instead of throwing away the Rod, or giving it a sudden twitch out of the Water, whereby he might have caught both the <hi>Eel,</hi> and have dismist the Rod, before it cou’d have too much Power over him; for Experiment sake, he grasp’d it but the harder, and fainting fell into the River; and being still possest of the Rod, the Tide carry’d him senseless as he was a great way, till an <hi>Indian</hi> Boat took him up; and perceiv’d, when they touch’d him, a Numbness seize them, and by that knew the Rod was in his Hand; which, with a Paddle (that is, a short Oar) they struck away, and snatch’d it into the Boat, <pb n=”165″/><hi>Eel</hi> and all. If <hi>Caesar</hi> were almost Dead, with the effect of this Fish, he was more so with that of the Water, where he had remain’d the space of going a League; and they found they had much a-do to bring him back to Life: But, at last, they did, and brought him home, where he was in a few Hours well Recover’d and Refresh’d; and not a little Asham’d to find he shou’d be overcome by an <hi>Eel;</hi> and that all the People, who heard his Defiance, wou’d Laugh at him. But we cheared him up; and he, being convinc’d, we had the <hi>Eel</hi> at Supper; which was a quarter of an Ell<note type=”gloss”> an ell is a unit of measurement; it varied from place to place and at different times, but an English ell of this period would have been about 45 inches </note> about, and most delicate Meat; and was of the more Value, since it cost so<pb n=”166″/>Dear, as almost the Life of so gallant a Man.</p>
<p>About this time we were in many mortal Fears, about some Disputes the <hi>English</hi> had with the <hi>Indians;</hi> so that we cou’d scarce trust our selves, without great Numbers, to go to any <hi>Indian</hi> Towns, or Place, where they abode; for fear they shou’d fall upon us, as they did immediately after my coming away; and that it was in the possession of the <hi>Dutch,</hi> who us’d ’em not so civilly as the <hi>English;</hi> so that they cut in pieces all they cou’d take, getting into Houses, and hanging up the Mother, and all her Children about her; and cut a Footman, I left behind me, all in Joynts, and nail’d him to Trees.</p>
<pb n=”167″/>
This feud began while I was there; so that I lost half the satisfaction I propos’d, in not seeing and visiting the <hi>Indian</hi> Towns. But one Day, bemoaning of our Misfortunes upon this account, <hi>Caesar</hi> told us, we need not Fear; for if we had a mind to go, he wou’d undertake to be our Guard: Some wou’d, but most wou’d not venture; about Eighteen of us resolv’d, and took Barge; and, after Eight Days, arriv’d near an <hi>Indian</hi> Town: But approaching it, the Hearts of some of our Company fail’d, and they wou’d not venture on Shore; so we Poll’d who wou’d, and who wou’d not: For my part, I said, If <hi>Caesar</hi> wou’d, I wou’d go; he resolv’d, so did my Brother, and<pb n=”168″/> my Woman, a Maid of good Courage. Now none of us speaking the Language of the People, and imagining we shou’d have a half Diversion in Gazing only; and not knowing what they said, we took a Fisherman that liv’d at the Mouth of the River, who had been a long Inhabitant there, and oblig’d him to go with us: But because he was known to the <hi>Indians,</hi> as trading among ’em; and being, by long Living there, become a perfect <hi>Indian</hi> in Colour, we, who resolv’d to surprize ’em, by making ’em see something they never had seen, (that is, White People) resolv’d only my self, my Brother, and Woman shou’d go; so <hi>Caesar,</hi> the Fisherman, and the rest, hiding behind some<pb n=”169″/> thick Reeds and Flowers, that grew on the Banks, let us pass on towards the Town, which was on the Bank of the River all along. A little distant from the Houses, or Hutts; we saw some Dancing, others busy’d in fetching and carrying of Water from the River: They had no sooner spy’d us, but they set up a loud Cry, that frighted us at first; we thought it had been for those that should Kill us, but it seems it was of Wonder and Amazement. They were all Naked, and we were Dress’d, so as is most comode for the hot Countries, very Glittering and Rich; so that we appear’d extreamly fine; my own Hair was cut short, and I had a Taffaty Cap, with Black Feathers, on my<pb n=”170″”/> Head; my Brother was in a Stuff Sute, with Silver Loops and Buttons, and abundance of Green Ribon; this was all infinitely surprising to them, and because we saw them stand still, till we approach’d ’em, we took Heart and advanc’d; came up to ’em, and offer’d ’em our Hands; which they took, and look’d on us round about, calling still for more Company; who came swarming out, all wondering, and crying out <hi>Tepeeme;</hi> taking their Hair up in their Hands, and spreading it wide to those they call’d out too; as if they would say (as indeed it signify’d) <hi>Numberless Wonders,</hi> or not to be recounted, no more than to number the Hair of their Heads. By degrees they grew<pb n=”171″/> more bold, and from gazing upon us round, they touch’d us; laying their Hands upon all the Features of our Faces, feeling our Breasts and Arms, taking up one Petticoat, then wondering to see another; admiring our Shooes and Stockings, but more our Garters, which we gave ’em; and they ty’d about their Legs, being Lac’d with Silver Lace at the ends, for they much Esteem any shining things<note type=”gloss”> Behn’s description of Native American gentleness and fascination with European dress and trinkets is an exploitive theme common throughout early colonial American literature. In most of the colonial writings regarding Native Americans, the tribes encountered are often depicted as subservient and attracted to lustrous items rather than those things which might possess monetary value. Writers of the period employed instances of civil exchange, fascination, and amity between white Europeans and Native Americans to engender merchants to settle the New World as well as convince wealthy aristocrats and merchants to patron campaigns to westernize and impose dominion by means of Christian conversion. </note>: In fine, we suffer’d ’em to survey us as they pleas’d, and we thought they wou’d never have done admiring us. When <hi>Caesar,</hi> and the rest, saw we were receiv’d with such wonder, they came up to us; and finding the <hi>Indian</hi> Trader whom they knew, (for ’tis <pb n=”172″/> by these Fishermen, call’d <hi>Indian</hi> Traders, we hold a Commerce with ’em; for they love not to go far from home, and we never go to them) when they saw him therefore they set up a new Joy; and cry’d, in their Language, <hi>Oh! here’s our</hi> Tiguamy<note type=
gloss”>Janet Todd notes that the phrase Amora tiguamy appears in Antione Biet’s Voyage de la France équixonale en l’isle de Cayenne (1654, pp. 395-7). Todd argues that Behn records a traditional greeting and provides the translation herself; however, it should be noted that the term Amora has connection with the Latin Amore, suggesting that Behn plays with contemporary accounts and phonetics to further depict the indigenous characters as loving and peaceful. The phrase likely developed out of interactions between the natives and the Spanish.</note>, <hi>and we shall now know whether those things can speak:</hi> So advancing to him, some of ’em gave him their Hands, and cry’d, <hi>Amora Tiguamy,</hi> which is as much as, <hi>How do you,</hi> or <hi>Welcome Friend;</hi> and all, with one din, began to gabble to him, and ask’d, If we had Sense, and Wit? if we cou’d talk of affairs of Life, and War, as they cou’d do? if we cou’d Hunt, Swim, and do a thousand things they use? He answer’d ’em, We cou’d. Then <pb n=”173″/>they invited us into their Houses, and dress’d Venison and Buffelo for us; and, going out, gathered a Leaf of a Tree, call’d a <hi>Sarumbo</hi><note type=”gloss”>Todd notes that Behn borrowed the word sarumbo from Biet as well; Biet observes that these large leaves were used as napkins.</note> Leaf, of Six Yards long, and spread it on the Ground for a Table-Cloth; and cutting another in pieces instead of Plates, setting us on little bow <hi>Indian</hi> Stools, which they cut out of one intire piece of Wood, and Paint, in a sort of Japan Work: They serve every one their Mess<note type=”gloss”>A serving of food; a course; or a meal (OED).</note> on these pieces of Leaves, and it was very good, but too high season’d with Pepper. When we had eat, my Brother, and I, took out our Flutes, and play’d to ’em, which gave ’em new Wonder; and I soon perceiv’d, by an admiration, that is natural to these<pb n=”174″/> People; and by the extream Ignorance and Simplicity of ’em, it were not difficult to establish any unknown or extravagant Religion among them; and to impose any Notions or Fictions upon ’em. For seeing a Kinsman of mine set some Paper a Fire, with a Burning-glass<note type=”gloss”>A lens, by which the rays of the sun may be concentrated on an object, so as to burn it if combustible (OED).</note>, a Trick they had never before seen, they were like to have Ador’d him for a God; and beg’d he wou’d give them the Characters or Figures of his Name, that they might oppose it against Winds and Storms; which he did, and they held it up in those Seasons, and fancy’d it had a Charm to conquer them; and kept it like a Holy Relique. They are very Superstitious, and call’d him the<pb n=”175″/> Great <hi>Peeie,</hi> that is, <hi>Prophet</hi> They show d us their <hi>Indian Peeie</hi> a Youth of about Sixteen Years old, as handsom as Nature cou’d make a Man. They consecrate a beautiful Youth from his Infancy, and all Arts are us’d to compleat him in the finest manner, both in Beauty and Shape: He is bred to all the little Arts and cunning they are capable of; to all the Legerdemain<note type=”gloss”>juggling or conjuring tricks. Deception, from the French leger de main, literally “light of hand.”</note> Tricks, and Slight of Hand, whereby he imposes upon the Rabble; and is both a Doctor in Physick and Divinity.<note type=”gloss”> And by these Tricks makes the Sick believe he sometimes eases their Pains; by drawing from the afflicted part little Serpents, or odd Flies, or Worms, or any Strange thing; and though<pb n=”176″/>they have besides undoubted good Remedies, for almost all their Diseases, they cure the Patient more by Fancy than by Medicines; and make themselves Fear’d, Lov’d, and Reverenc’d.<note type=”gloss”>Behn describes the tribe as passing down its highest artistic and scientific knowledge to a select member who undergoes rigorous training from youth. This pattern relates to ideal models of aristocratic education in European society.<note> This young <hi>Peeie</hi> had a very young Wife, who seeing my Bròther kiss her, came running and kiss’d me; after this, they kiss’d one another, and made it a very great Jest, it being so Novel; and new Admiration and Laughing went round the Multitude, that they never will forget that Ceremony, never before us’d or known. <hi>Caesar</hi> had a mind to see and talk with their War <hi>Captains,</hi> and we were conducted to one of their Houses; where we beheld several of the
<pb n=”177″/>great <hi>Captains,</hi> who had been at Councel: But so frightful a Vision it was to see ’em no Fancy can create; no such Dreams can represent so dreadful a Spectacle. For my part I took ’em for Hobgoblins, or Fiends, rather than Men; but however their Shapes appear’d, their Souls were very Humane and Noble; but some wanted their Noses, some their Lips, some both Noses and Lips, some their Ears, and others Cut through each Cheek, with long Slashes, through which their Teeth appear’d; they had other several formidable Wounds and Scars, or rather Dismemberings; they had <hi>Comitias,</hi><note type=”gloss”>Todd notes that Behn may have borrowed from Biet yet again. Biet claims Indians wore a small piece of clothing called un camison.</note> or little Aprons before ’em; and Girdles of Cotton, with their Knives naked,<pb n=”178″/> stuck in it; a Bow at their Backs, and a Quiver of Arrows on their Thighs; and most had Feathers on their Heads of divers Colours. They cry’d, <hi>Amora Tigame</hi> to us, at our entrance, and were pleas’d we said as much to em; they seated us, and gave us Drink of the best Sort; and wonder’d, as much as the others had done before, to see us. <hi>Caesar</hi> was marvelling as much at their Faces, wondering how they shou’d all be so Wounded in War; he was Impatient to know how they all came by those frightful Marks of Rage or Malice, rather than Wounds got in Noble Battel: They told us, by our Interpreter, That when any War was waging, two<pb n=”179″/> Men chosen out by some old <hi>Captain,</hi> whose Fighting was past, and who cou’d only teach the Theory of War, these two Men were to stand in Competition for the Generalship, or Great War Captain; and being brought before the old Judges, now past Labour, they are ask’d, What they dare do to shew they are worthy to lead an Army? When he, who is first ask’d, making no Reply, Cuts of his Nose, and throws it contemptably on the Ground; and the other does something to himself that he thinks surpasses him, and perhaps deprives himself of Lips and an Eye; so they Slash on till one gives out, and many have dy’d in this Debate. And ‘its by a passive Valour they <pb n=”180″/>shew and prove their Activity; a sort of Courage too Brutal to be applauded by our Black Hero; nevertheless he express’d his Esteem of ’em.</p>
<p>In this Voyage <hi>Caesar</hi> begot so good an understanding between the <hi>Indians</hi> and the <hi>English,</hi> that there were no more Fears, or Heart-burnings<note type=”gloss”>Jealousy, resentment, or discontent. Grudges (OED).</note> during our stay; but we had a perfect, open, and free Trade with ’em: Many things Remarkable, and worthy Reciting, we met with in this short Voyage; because <hi>Caesar</hi> made it his Business to search out and provide for our Entertainment, especially to please his dearly Ador’d <hi>Imoinda,</hi> who was a sharer in all our Adventures; we being resolv’d to make her Chains as easy as we cou’d, and<pb n=”181″/> to Compliment the Prince in that manner that most oblig’d him.</p>
<p>As we were coming up again, we met with some <hi>Indians</hi> of strange Aspects; that is, of a larger Size, and other sort of Features, than those of our Country: Our <hi>Indian Slaves,</hi> that Row’d us, ask’d ’em some Questions, but they cou’d not understand us; but shew’d us a long Cotton String, with several Knots on it; and told us, they had been coming from the Mountains so many Moons<note type=”gloss”> months</note> as there were Knots; they were habited in Skins of a strange Beast, and brought along with ’em Bags of Gold Dust; which, as well as they cou’d give us to understand, came streaming in<pb n=”182″/> little small Chanels down the high Mountains, when the Rains fell; and offer’d to be the Convoy to any Body, or Persons, that wou’d go to the Mountains<note type=”gloss”> Europeans still believed that a golden city, or El Dorado, existed in the South American mountains</note>. We carry’d these Men up to <hi>Parham,</hi> where they were kept till the Lord Governour came: And because all the Country was mad to be going on this Golden Adventure, the Governour, by his Letters, commanded (for they sent some of the Gold to him) that a Guard shou’d be set at the Mouth of the River of <hi>Amazons<note type=”gloss”>Todd explains that this is a geographic blunder. The mouth of the Amazon is in Brazil, but cartographers had drawn it as the south-eastern border of “Guiana” throughout the seventeenth century.</note>,</hi> (a River so call’d, almost as broad as the River of <hi>Thames)</hi> and prohibited all People from going up that River, it conducting to those Mountains of Gold. But we going off for <hi>England</hi> before <pb n=”183″/>the Project was further prosecuted, and the Governour being drown’d in a Hurricane, either the Design dy’d, or the <hi>Dutch</hi> have the Advantage of it: And ’tis to be bemoan’d what his Majesty lost by loosing that part of <hi>America.</hi>
<p>Though this digression is a little from my Story, however since it contains some Proofs of the Curiosity and Daring of this great Man, I was content to omit nothing of his Character.</p>
<p>It was thus, for sometime we diverted him; but now <hi>Imoinda</hi> began to shew she was with Child, and did nothing but Sigh and Weep for the Captivity of her Lord, her Self, and the Infant yet Unborn; and believ’d,<pb n=”184″/> if it were so hard to gain the Liberty of Two, ‘twou’d be more difficult to get that for Three. Her Griefs were so many Darts in the great Heart of <hi>Caesar;</hi> and taking his Opportunity one <hi>Sunday,</hi> when all the Whites were overtaken in Drink, as there were abundance of several Trades, and <hi>Slaves</hi> for Four Years, that Inhabited among the <hi>Negro</hi> Houses; and <hi>Sunday</hi> was their Day of Debauch, (otherwise they were a sort of Spys upon <hi>Caesar;)</hi> he went pretending out of Goodness to ’em, to Feast amongst ’em; and sent all his Musick, and order’d a great Treat for the whole Gang, about Three Hundred <hi>Negros;</hi> and about a Hundred and Fifty were able to bear Arms, such as <pb n=”185″/>they had, which were sufficient to do Execution with Spirits accordingly: For the <hi>English</hi> had none but rusty Swords, that no Strength cou’d draw from a Scabbard; except the People of particular Quality, who took care to Oyl ’em and keep ’em in good Order: The Guns also, unless here and there one, or those newly carri’d from <hi>England,</hi> wou’d do no good or harm; for ’tis the Nature of that County to Rust and Eat up Iron, or any Metals, but Gold and Silver. And they are very Unexpert at the Bow, which the <hi>Negros</hi> and <hi>Indians</hi> are perfect Masters off.</p>
<hi>Caesar,</hi> having singl’d out these Men from the Women and Children, made an Harangue<note type=”gloss”>a tirade. The term first appears c1450, but only in Scottish writings. It was not used in England until c1600. It derives from medieval Latin harenga, which shares the current definition, and the Italian aringo, a place of declamation, arena.</note><pb n=”186″/> to ’em of the Miseries, and Ignominies of Slavery; counting up all their Toyls and Sufferings, under such Loads, Burdens, and Drudgeries, as were fitter for Beasts than Men; Senseless Brutes, than Humane Souls. He told ’em it was not for Days, Months, or Years, but for Eternity; there was no end to be of their Misfortunes: They suffer’d not like Men who might find a Glory, and Fortitude in Oppression; but like Dogs that lov’d the Whip and Bell, and fawn’d the more they were beaten: That they had lost the Divine Quality of Men, and were become insensible Asses, fit only to bear; nay worse: an Ass, or Dog, or Horse having done his Duty, cou’d lye down<pb n=”187″/> in Retreat, and rise to Work again, and while he did his Duty indur’d no Stripes; but Men, Villanous, Senseless Men, such as they, Toyl’d on all the tedious Week till Black <hi>Friday<note type=”gloss”>The Day of Judgment.</note>;</hi> and then, whether they Work’d or not, whether they were Faulty or Meriting, they promiscuously, the Innocent with the Guilty, suffer’d the infamous Whip, the sordid Stripes, from their Fellow <hi>Slaves</hi> till their Blood trickled from all Parts of their Body; Blood, whose every drop ought to be Reveng’d with a Life of some of those Tyrants, that impose it; <hi>And why,</hi> said he, <hi>my dear Friends and Fellow-sufferers, shou’d we be Slaves to an unknown People? Have they Vanquish’d us Nobly in Fight? Have they Won</hi><pb n=”188″/><hi> us in Honourable Battel? And are we, by the chance of War, become their Slaves?<note type=”gloss”> Oroonoko here is expressing what was known as the “just war” doctrine of slavery, that those who lost a war could rightly be enslaved. It is on this basis that Oroonoko himself owns slaves. The distinction he is making here is that, according to this doctrine, slaves gained through conquest are justified while slaves acquired through trickery or commerce are not.</note> This wou’d not anger a Noble Heart, this wou’d not animate a Souldiers Soul; no, but we are Bought and Sold like Apes, or Monkeys, to be the Sport of Women, Fools and Cowards; and the Support of Rogues, Runagades<note type=”gloss”>renegades</note>, that have abandon’d their own Countries, for Rapin, Murders, Thefts and Villanies: Do you not hear every Day how they upbraid each other with infamy of Life, below the Wildest Salvages; and shall we render Obedience to such a degenerate Race, who have no one Humane Vertue left, to distinguish ’em from the vilest Creatures? Will you, I say, suffer the Lash from such Hands?</hi> They all Reply’d, with one accord,<pb n=”189″/> <hi>No, no, no;</hi> Caesar <hi>has spoke like a Great Captain; like a Great King.</hi>
<p>After this he wou’d have proceeded, but was interrupted by a tall <hi>Negro</hi> of some more Quality than the rest, his Name was <hi>Tuscan;</hi><note type=”gloss”>Tuscan’s name derives from the late Latin Tuscānus meaning “of or belonging to the Tuscī or Thuscī, a people of ancient Italy (called also Etruscī Etruscans)” (OED). The Etruscans inhabited ancient Etruria, so Tuscan’s name implies nobility and European origins.</note> who Bowing at the Feet of <hi>Caesar,</hi> cry’d, <hi>My Lord, we have listen’d with Joy and Attention to what you have said; and, were we only Men, wou’d follow so great a Leader through the World: But oh! consider, we are Husbands and Parents too, and have things more dear to us than Life; our Wives and Children unfit for Travel, in these unpassable Woods, Mountains and Bogs; we have not only difficult Lands to overcome, but Rivers to Wade, and Monsters to Incounter;</hi><pb n=”190″/> <hi>Ravenous Beasts of Prey—</hi>To this, <hi>Caesar</hi> Reply’d, <hi>That Honour was the First Principle in Nature, that was to be Obey’d; but as no Man wou’d pretend to that, without all the Acts of Vertue, Compassion, Charity, Love, Justice and Reason; he found it not inconsistent with that, to take an equal Care of their Wives and Children, as they wou’d of themselves; and that he did not Design, when he led them to Freedom, and Glorious Liberty, that they shou’d leave that better part of themselves to Perish by the Hand of the Tyrant’s Whip: But if there were a Woman among them so degenerate from Love and Vertue to chuse Slavery before the pursuit of her Husband, and with the hazard of her Life, to share with him in</hi> <pb n=”191″/><hi>his Fortunes; that such an one ought to be Abandon’d, and left as a Prey to the common Enemy.</hi>
<p>To which they all Agreed,—and Bowed. After this, he spoke of the Impassable Woods and Rivers; and convinc’d ’em, the more Danger, the more Glory. He told them that he had heard of one <hi>Hannibal</hi> a great Captain, had Cut his Way through Mountains of solid Rocks<note type=”gloss”>According to the Roman historian Plutarch, the Carthaginian general Hannibal used vinegar and fire to burn his way through the Alps to attack the Roman army.<note>; and shou’d a few Shrubs oppose them; which they cou’d Fire before ’em? No, ’twas a trifling Excuse to Men resolv’d to die, or overcome. As for Bogs, they are with a little Labour fill’d and harden’d; and the Rivers cou’d be no Obstacle, since they Swam by Nature; at least by<pb n=”192″/>Custom, from their First Hour of their Birth: That when the Children were Weary they must carry them by turns, and the Woods and their own Industry wou’d afford them Food. To this they all assented with Joy.</p>
<hi>Tuscan</hi> then demanded, What he wou’d do? He said, they wou’d Travel towards the Sea; Plant a New Colony, and Defend it by their Valour; and when they cou’d find a Ship, either driven by stress of Weather, or guided by Providence that way, they wou’d Sieze it, and make it a Prize, till it had Transported them to their own Countries; at least, they shou’d be made Free in his Kingdom, and be Esteem’d as his Fellowsufferers, and Men that had<pb n=”193″/>
the Courage, and the Bravery to attempt, at least, for Liberty; and if they Dy’d in the attempt it wou’d be more brave, than to Live in perpetual Slavery.</p>
<p>They bow’d and kiss’d his Feet at this Resolution, and with one accord Vow’d to follow him to Death. And that Night was appointed to begin their March; they made it known to their Wives, and directed them to tie their Hamaca about their Shoulder, and under their Arm like a Scarf; and to lead their Children that cou’d go, and carry those that cou’d not. The Wives who pay an intire Obedience to their Husbands obey’d, and stay’d for ’em, where they were appointed: The Men <pb n=”194″/>stay’d but to furnish themselves with what defensive Arms they cou’d get; and All met at the Rendezvous, where <hi>Caesar</hi> made a new incouraging Speech to ’em, and led ’em out.</p>
<p>But, as they cou’d not march far that Night, on Monday early, when the Overseers went to call ’em all together, to go to Work, they were extreamly surpris’d, to find not one upon the Place, but all fled with what Baggage they had. You may imagine this News was not only suddenly spread all over the <hi>Plantation,</hi> but soon reach’d the Neighbouring ones; and we had by Noon about Six hundred Men, they call the <hi>Militia</hi> of the County, that came to assist us in the persute of the Fugitives:<pb n=”195″/> But never did one see so comical an Army march forth to War. The Men, of any fashion<note type=”gloss”> of high social standing; the upper class</note>, wou’d not concern themselves, though it were almost the common Cause; for such Revoltings are very ill Examples, and have very fatal Consequences oftentimes in many Colonies: But they had a Respect for <hi>Caesar,</hi> and all hands were against the <hi>Parhamites,</hi> as they call’d those of <hi>Parham Plantation;</hi> because they did not, in the first place, love the Lord Governor; and secondly, they wou’d have it, that <hi>Caesar</hi> was Ill us’d<note type=”gloss”>poorly treated<note>, and Baffl’d with<note type=”gloss”> subjected to public disgrade (OED)</note>; and ’tis not impossible but some of the best in the Country was of his Council in this Flight, and depriving us of all the<hi>Slaves;</hi> so that they<pb n=”196″/>of the better sort wou’d not meddle in the matter. The Deputy Governor, of whom I have had no great occasion to speak, and who was the most Fawning fair-tongu’d Fellow in the World, and one that pretended the most Friendship to <hi>Caesar,</hi> was now the only violent Man against him; and though he had nothing, and so need fear nothing, yet talk’d and look’d bigger than any Man: He was a Fellow, whose Character is not fit to be mention’d with the worst of the <hi>Slaves.</hi><note type=”gloss”>William Byam is a real historical personage, noted both in Antione Biet’s Voyage de la France équixonale en l’isle de Cayenne (1654) and Henry Adis’s A Letter Sent from Syrrinam (1664). As deputy governor of Surinam, Byam ruled the colony in the absence of Lord Willoughby. According to Flannigan’s Antigua and the Antiguans. A Full Account of the Colony and its Inhabitants, after the Dutch takeover of Surinam, Byam led many of the British colonists to Antigua, where became governor and lived until c. 1670. Todd notes that both Biet and Adis, otherwise critical of the colony in Surinam, praise Byam: Adis refers to him as “that worthy person, whom your Lordship hath lately honoured with the Title and Power of your Lieutenant General of this Continent of Guinah”; while Biet describes him as brave, honorable, and civil (pp. 263, 279). Behn’s decision to portray him as cowardly and deceitful appears to have been her own. On the other hand, Byam did face accusations of unnecessary cruelty in his governance from an opposition group led by John Allin. Byam wrote a tract An Exact Relation of the Most Execrable Attempts of John Allin (1665) defending the need for harsh measures to govern the unruly colonists and accusing Allin of insurrection.</note> This Fellow wou’d lead his Army forth to meet <hi>Caesar;</hi> or rather to persue him; most of their Arms were of those sort of cruel Whips they call <hi>Cat with Nine Tayls<note type=”gloss”>more commonly cat-o’-nine-tails, a whip with nine knotted lashes, often used for corporal punishment in the British military until 1881. (OED)<note>;</hi> some had rusty<pb n=”197″/> useless Guns for show; others old Basket-hilts<note type=”gloss”>defensive hilts on the handle of a sword consisting of narrow plates of steel curved into the shape of a basket</note>, whose Blades had never seen the Light in this Age; and others had long Staffs, and Clubs. Mr. <hi>Trefry</hi> went a long, rather to be a Mediator than a Conqueror, in such a Batail; for he foresaw, and knew, if by fighting they put the <hi>Negroes</hi> into dispair, they were a sort of sullen Fellows, that wou’d drown, or kill themselves, before they wou’d yield; and he advis’d that fair means was best: But <hi>Byam</hi> was one that abounded in his own Wit<note type=”gloss”>followed his own judgment</note>, and wou’d take his own Measures.</p>
<p>It was not hard to find these Fugitives; for as they fled they were forc’d to fire and cut the Woods before ’em, so that Night<pb n=”198″/> or Day they persu’d ’em by the light they made, and by the path they had clear’d: But as soon as <hi>Caesar</hi> found he was persu’d, he put himself in a Posture of Defence, placing all the Women and Children in the Reer; and himself, with <hi>Tuscan</hi> by his side, or next to him, all promising to Dye or Conquer. Incourag’d thus, they never stood to Parley, but fell on Pell-mell upon the <hi>English,</hi> and kill’d some, and wounded a good many; they having recourse to their Whips, as the best of their Weapons: And as they observ’d no Order, they perplex’d the Enemy so sorely, with Lashing ’em in the Eyes; and the Women and Children, seeing their Husbands so treated, being of <pb n=”199″/>fearful Cowardly Dispositions, and hearing the <hi>English</hi> cry out, <hi>Yield and Live, Yield and be Pardon’d;</hi> they all run in amongst their Husbands and Fathers, and hung about ’em, crying out, <hi>Yield, yield; and leave</hi> Caesar <hi>to their Revenge;</hi> that by degrees the <hi>Slaves</hi> abandon’d <hi>Caesar,</hi> and left him only <hi>Tuscan</hi> and his Heroick <hi>Imoinda;</hi> who, grown big as she was, did nevertheless press near her Lord, having a Bow, and a Quiver full of poyson’d Arrows, which she manag’d with such dexterity, that she wounded several, and shot the <hi>Governor</hi> into the Shoulder; of which Wound he had like to have Dy’d, but that an <hi>Indian</hi> Woman, his Mistress, suck’d the Wound, and cleans’d it from<pb n=”200″/> the Venom: But however, he stir’d not from the Place till he had Parlv’d with <hi>Caesar,</hi> who he found was resolv’d to dye Fighting, and wou’d not be Taken; no more wou’d <hi>Tuscan,</hi> or <hi>Imoinda.</hi> But he, more thirsting after Revenge of another sort, than that of depriving him of Life, now made use of all his Art of talking, and dissembling; and besought <hi>Caesar</hi> to yield himself upon Terms, which he himself should propose, and should be Sacredly assented to and kept by him: He told him, It was not that he any longer fear’d him, or cou’d believe the force of Two Men, and a young Heroin, cou’d overcome all them, with all the Slaves now on their side also; but it was the vast Esteem<pb n=”201″/> he had for his Person; the desire he had to serve so Gallant a Man; and to hinder himself from the Reproach hereafter, of having been the occasion of the Death of a <hi>Prince,</hi> whose Valour and Magnanimity deserv’d the Empire of the World. He protested to him, he look’d upon this Action, as Gallant and Brave; however tending to the prejudice of his Lord and Master, who wou’d by it have lost so considerable a number of <hi>Slaves;</hi> that this Flight of his shou’d be look’d on as a heat of Youth, and rashness of a too forward Courage, and an unconsider’d<note type=”gloss”> unpremeditated</note> impatience of Liberty, and no more; and that he labour’d in vain to accomplish that which they wou’d effectually perform,<pb n=”202″/>as soon as any Ship arriv’d that wou’d touch on<note type=”gloss”>draw near to</note> his Coast. <hi>So that if you will be pleas’d,</hi> continued he, <hi>to surrender your self, all imaginable Respect shall be paid you; and your Self, your Wife, and Child, if it be here born, shall depart free out of our Land.</hi> But <hi>Caesar</hi> wou’d hear of no Composition; though <hi>Byam</hi> urg’d, If he persu’d, and went on in his Design, he wou’d inevitably Perish, either by great <hi>Snakes,</hi> wild Beasts, or Hunger; and he ought to have regard to his Wife, whose Condition required ease, and not the fatigues of tedious<note type=”gloss”> tiresome, exhausting</note> Travel; where she cou’d not be secur’d from being devoured. But <hi>Caesar</hi> told him, there was no Faith in the White Men, or the Gods they Ador’d;<pb n=”203″/> who instructed ’em in Principles so false, that honest Men cou’d not live amongst ’em; though no People profess’d so much, none perform’d so little; that he knew what he had to do, when he dealt with Men of Honour; but with them a Man ought to be eternally on his Guard, and never to Eat and Drink with <hi>Christians</hi> without his Weapon of Defence in his Hand; and, for his own Security, never to credit one Word they spoke. As for the rashness and inconsiderateness of his Action he wou’d confess the Governor is in the right; and that he was asham’d of what he had done, in endeavoring to make those Free, who were by Nature <hi>Slaves,</hi> poor wretched Rogues, fit to be us’d as<pb n=”204″/> <hi>Christians</hi> Tools; Dogs, treacherous and cowardly, fit for such Masters; and they wanted only but to be whipt into the knowledge of the <hi>Christian Gods</hi> to be the vilest of all creeping things; to learn to Worship such Deities as had not Power to make ’em Just, Brave, or Honest. In fine, after a thousand things of this Nature, not fit here to be recited, he told <hi>Byam,</hi> he had rather Dye than Live upon the same Earth with such Dogs. But <hi>Trefry</hi> and <hi>Byam</hi> pleaded and protested together so much, that <hi>Trefry</hi> believing the <hi>Governor</hi> to mean what he said; and speaking very cordially himself, generously put himself into <hi>Caesar</hi>’s Hands, and took him aside, and perswaded him, even with Tears,<pb n=”205″/> to Live, by Surrendring himself, and to name his Conditions. <hi>Caesar</hi> was overcome by his Wit and Reasons, and in consideration of <hi>Imoinda;</hi> and demanding what he desir’d, and that it shou’d be ratify’d by their Hands in Writing, because he had perceiv’d that was the common way of contract between Man and Man, amongst the Whites: All this was perform’d, and <hi>Tuscan</hi>’s Pardon was put in, and they Surrender to the Governor, who walked peaceably down into the <hi>Plantation</hi> with ’em, after giving order to bury their dead. <hi>Caesar</hi> was very much toyl’d with the bustle of the Day; for he had fought like a Fury<note type=”gloss”> an allusion to the Furies three mythical Greek goddesses of vengeance and punishment, best known for punishing those who swear false oaths and, especially, those who kill their own kin.</note>, and what Mischief was done he and <hi>Tuscan</hi> perform’d <pb n=”206″/>alone; and gave their Enemies a fatal Proof that they durst do any thing, and fear’d no mortal Force.</p>
<p>But they were no sooner arriv’d at the Place, where all the Slaves receive their Punishments of Whipping, but they laid Hands on <hi>Caesar</hi> and <hi>Tuscan,</hi> faint with heat and toyl; and, surprising them, Bound them to two several Stakes, and Whipt them in a most deplorable and inhumane Manner, rending the very Flesh from their Bones; especially <hi>Caesar,</hi> who was not perceiv’d to make any Mone, or to alter his Face, only to roul his Eyes on the Faithless <hi>Governor,</hi> and those he believ’d Guilty, with Fierceness and Indignation; and, to compleat his Rage, he <pb n=”207″/>saw every one of those <hi>Slaves,</hi> who, but a few Davs before, Ador’d him as something more than Mortal, now had a Whip to give him some Lashes, while he strove not to break his Fetters; though, if he had, it were impossible: But he pronounced a Woe and Revenge from his Eyes, that darted Fire, that ’twas at once both Awful and Terrible to behold.</p>
<p>When they thought they were sufficiently Reveng’d on him, they unty’d him, almost Fainting, with loss of Blood, from a thousand Wounds all over his Body; from which they had rent his Cloaths, and led him Bleeding and Naked as he was; and loaded him all over with Irons; and then rubbed his<pb n=”208″/> Wounds, to compleat their Cruelty, with <hi>Indian Pepper,</hi> which had like to have made him raving Mad; and, in this Condition, made him so fast to the Ground that he cou’d not stir, if his Pains and Wounds wou’d have given him leave. They spar’d <hi>Imoinda,</hi> and did not let her see this Barbarity committed towards her Lord, but carry’d her down to <hi>Parham,</hi> and shut her up; which was not in kindness to her, but for fear she shou’d Dye with the Sight, or Miscarry; and then they shou’d loose a young <hi>Slave,</hi> and perhaps the Mother.</p>
<p>You must know, that when the News was brought on Monday Morning, that <hi>Caesar</hi> had betaken himself to the Woods,<pb n=”209″/> and carry’d with him all the <hi>Negroes.</hi> We were possess’d with extream Fear, which no perswasions cou’d Dissipate, that he wou’d secure himself till Night; and then, that he wou’d come down and Cut all our Throats. This apprehension made all the Females of us fly down the River, to be secur’d; and while we were away, they acted this Cruelty: For I suppose I had Authority and Interest enough there, had I suspected any such thing, to have prevented it; but we had not gon many Leagues, but the News overtook us that <hi>Caesar</hi> was taken, and Whipt like a common <hi>Slave.</hi> We met on the River with Colonel <hi>Martin,</hi> a Man of great Gallantry, Wit, and<pb n=”210″/>Goodness, and whom I have celebrated in a Character of my New <hi>Comedy,</hi> by his own Name, in memory of so brave a Man<note type=”gloss”>Todd notes that a Colonel Marten of the Surinam militia appears in multiple historical accounts of the colony, although the authority under which he was styled colonel is dubious. In contrast to Behn’s positive portrayal, Robert Sanford depicts Marten in Surinam Justice (1662) with many of the negative traits assigned to Byam and other colonists by Behn: he is eager to commit violent acts, cruel, ill-tempered, profane, and “so famous in nothing as his variety of councels: and it seems the whole bulk of Government must dance to the changes of his brain.”Colonel Martin indeed appears as a character in Behn’s play The Younger Brother, Or, The Amorous Jilt. Behn’s self-promotion is premature, however, since the play was not produced until 1696, seven years after her death</note> : He was Wise and Eloquent; and, from the fineness of his Parts, bore a great Sway over the Hearts of all the <hi>Colony:</hi> He was a Friend to <hi>Caesar,</hi> and resented this false Dealing with him very much. We carried him back to <hi>Parham,</hi> thinking to have made an Accomodation; when we came, the First News we heard was, that the <hi>Governor</hi> was Dead of a Wound <hi>Imoinda</hi> had given him; but it was not so well: But it seems he wou’d have the Pleasure of beholding the Revenge he took on <hi>Caesar;</hi> and before the cruel Ceremony was finish’d, he drop’d<pb n=”211″/> down; and then they perceiv’d the Wound he had on his Shoulder, was by a venom’d Arrow; which, as I said, his <hi>Indian</hi> Mistress heal’d, by Sucking the Wound.</p>
<p>We were no sooner Arriv’d, but we went up to the <hi>Plantation</hi> to see <hi>Caesar,</hi> whom we found in a very Miserable and Unexpressable Condition; and I have a Thousand times admired how he liv’d, in so much tormenting Pain. We said all things to him, that Trouble, Pitty, and Good Nature cou’d suggest; Protesting our Innocency of the Fact, and our Abhorance of such Cruelties. Making a Thousand Professions of Services to him, and Begging as many Pardons for the Offenders,<pb n=”212″/>till we said so much, that he believ’d we had no Hand in his ill Treatment; but told us, he cou’d never Pardon <hi>Byam;</hi> as for <hi>Trefry,</hi> he confess’d he saw his Grief and Sorrow, for his Suffering, which he cou’d not hinder, but was like to have been beaten down by the very <hi>Slaves,</hi> for Speaking in his Defence: But for <hi>Byam,</hi> who was their Leader, their Head;—and shou’d, by his Justice, and Honor, have been an Example to ’em.—For him, he wish’d to Live, to take a dire Revenge of him, and said, <hi>It had been well for him, if he had Sacrific’d me, instead of giving me the contemptable Whip.</hi> He refus’d to Talk much, but Begging us to give him our Hands; he took<pb n=”213″/> ’em, and Protested never to lift up his, to do us any Harm. He had a great Respect for Colonel <hi>Martin,</hi> and always took his Counsel, like that of a Parent; and assur’d him, he wou’d obey him in any thing, but his Revenge on <hi>Byam. Therefore,</hi> said he, <hi>for his own Safety, let him speedily dispatch me; for if I cou’d dispatch my self, I wou’d not, till that Justice were done to my injur’d Person, and the contempt of a Souldier: No, I wou’d not kill my self, even after a Whiping, but will be content to live with that Infamy, and be pointed at by every grining Slave, till I have compleated my Revenge; and then you shall see that</hi> Oroonoko <hi>scorns to live with the Indignity that was put on</hi> Caesar. All we<pb n=”214″/> cou’d do cou’d get no more Words from him; and we took care to have him put immediately into a healing Bath, to rid him of his Pepper; and order’d a Chirurgeon<note type=”gloss”>surgeon</note> to anoint him with healing Balm, which he suffer’d, and in some time he began to be able to Walk and Eat; we fail’d not to visit him every Day, and, to that end, had him brought to an apartment<note type=”gloss”>a room in a house designed for the use of a particular person</note> at <hi>Parham.</hi>
<p>The <hi>Governor</hi> was no sooner recover’d, and had heard of the menaces<note type=”gloss”> threats</note> of <hi>Caesar,</hi> but he call’d his Council; who (not to disgrace them, or Burlesque<note type=”gloss”>imitate, deride, or amuse (OED)</note> the Government there) consisted of such notorious Villains as <hi>Newgate</hi><note type=”gloss”> the central prison in London</note> never transported<note type=”gloss”> throughout this period, many criminals found guilty of crimes against property in Britain were sentenced by being “transported” or exiled for a period of years to the colonies.</note>; and possibly originally were such, who<pb n=”215″/> understood neither the Laws of <hi>God</hi> or <hi>Man;</hi> and had no sort of Principles to make ’em worthy the Name of Men: But, at the very Council Table, wou’d Contradict and Fight with one another; and Swear so bloodily that ’twas terrible to hear, and see ’em. (Some of ’em were afterwards Hang’d, when the <hi>Dutch</hi> took possession of the place; others sent off in Chains:) But calling these special Rulers of the Nation together, and requiring their Counsel in this weighty Affair, they all concluded, that (Damn ’em) it might be their own Cases; and that <hi>Caesar</hi> ought to be made an Example to all the <hi>Negroes,</hi> to fright ’em from daring to threaten their Betters, their Lords<pb n=”216″/> and Masters; and, at this rate, no Man was safe from his own <hi>Slaves;</hi> and concluded, <hi>nemine contradicente</hi><note type=”gloss”> with no one speaking to the contrary.</note> that <hi>Caesar</hi> shou’d be Hang’d.</p>
<hi>Trefry</hi> then thought it time to use his Authority; and told <hi>Byam</hi> his Command did not extend to his Lord’s <hi>Plantation;</hi> and that <hi>Parham</hi> was as much exempt from the Law as <hi>White-hall;</hi><note type=”gloss”>offices of government in Whitehall, London. Trefry’s implication is that Byam, although governor of Surinam, remains as subordinate to the King as any civil servant back in Great Britain.</note> and that they ought no more to touch the Servants of the Lord—(who there represented the King’s Person) than they cou’d those about the King himself; and that <hi>Parham</hi> was a Sanctuary; and though his Lord were absent in Person, his Power was still in Being there; which he had intrusted with him, as far as the Dominions of his particular<pb n=”217″/> <hi>Plantations</hi> reach’d, and all that belong’d to it; the rest of the <hi>Country,</hi> as <hi>Byam</hi> was Lieutenant to his Lord, he might exercise his Tyrany upon. <hi>Trefry</hi> had others as powerful, or more, that int’rested themselves in <hi>Caesar</hi>’s Life, and absolutely said, He shou’d be Defended. So turning the <hi>Governor,</hi> and his wise Council, out of Doors, (for they sate at <hi>Parham-house)</hi> they set a Guard upon our Landing Place, and wou’d admit none but those we call’d Friends to us and <hi>Caesar.</hi>
<p>The <hi>Governor</hi> having remain’d wounded at <hi>Parham,</hi> till his recovery was compleated, <hi>Caesar</hi> did not know but he was still there; and indeed, for the most part, his time was spent there;<pb n=”218″/> for he was one that lov’d to Live at other Peoples Expence; and if he were a Day absent, he was Ten present there; and us’d to Play, and Walk, and Hunt, and Fish, with <hi>Caesar.</hi> So that <hi>Caesar</hi> did not at all doubt, if he once recover’d Strength, but he shou’d find an opportunity of being Reveng’d on him: Though, after such a Revenge, he cou’d not hope to Live; for if he escap’d the Fury of the <hi>English</hi> Mobile<note type=”gloss”> the mob, the rabble; the common people, the populace (OED)</note>, who perhaps wou’d have been glad of the occasion to have kill’d him, he was resolv’d not to survive his Whiping; yet he had, some tender Hours, a repenting Softness, which he called his fits of Coward; wherein he struggl’d with Love for the Victory of his Heart,<pb n=”219″/> which took part with his charming <hi>Imoinda</hi> there; but, for the most part, his time was past in melancholy Thought, and black Designs; he consider’d, if he shou’d do this Deed, and Dye, either in the Attempt, or after it, he left his lovely <hi>Imoinda</hi> a Prey, or at best a <hi>Slave,</hi> to the inrag’d Multitude; his great Heart cou’d not indure that Thought. <hi>Perhaps,</hi> said he, <hi>she may be first Ravished by every Brute; exposed first to their nasty Lusts, and then a shameful Death.</hi> No; he could not Live a Moment under that Apprehension, too insupportable to be born. These were his Thoughts, and his silent Arguments with his Heart, as he told us afterwards; so that now resolving not only<pb n=”220″/> to kill <hi>Byam,</hi> but all those he thought had inrag’d him; pleasing his great Heart with the fancy’d Slaughter he shou’d make over the whole Face of the <hi>Plantation.</hi> He first resolv’d on a Deed, that (however Horrid it at first appear’d to us all) when we had heard his Reasons, we thought it Brave and Just: Being able to Walk, and, as he believ’d, fit for the Execution of his great Design, he beg’d <hi>Trefry</hi> to trust him into the Air, believing a Walk wou’d do him good; which was granted him, and taking <hi>Imoinda</hi> with him, as he us’d to do in his more happy and calmer Days, he led her up into a Wood, where, after (with a thousand Sighs, and long Gazing silently on her Face, while<pb n=”221″/> Tears gust, in spight of him, from his Eyes) he told her his Design first of Killing her, and then his Enemies, and next himself, and the impossibility of Escaping, and therefore he told her the necessity of Dying; he found the Heroick Wife faster pleading for Death than he was to propose it, when she found his fix’d Resolution; and, on her Knees, besought him, not to leave her a Prey to his Enemies. He (griev’d to Death) yet pleased at her noble Resolution, took her up, and imbracing her, with all the Passion and Languishment of a dying Lover, drew his Knife to kill this Treasure of his Soul, this Pleasure of his Eyes; while Tears trickl’d down his Cheeks, hers were Smiling with Joy she <pb n=”222″/>
shou’d dye by so noble a Hand, and be sent in her own Country, (for that’s their Notion of the next World) by him she so tenderly Lov’d, and so truly Ador’d in this; for Wives have a respect for their Husbands equal to what any other People pay a Deity; and when a Man finds any occasion to quit his Wife, if he love her, she dyes by his Hand; if not, he sells her, or suffers some other to kill her. It being thus; you may believe the Deed was soon resolv’d on; and ’tis not to be doubted, but the Parting, the eternal Leave taking of Two such Lovers, so greatly Born, so Sensible<note type=”gloss”> Capable of or liable to mental emotion. Having sensibility; capable of delicate or tender feeling. (OED)</note>, so Beautiful, so Young, and so Fond, must be very Moving, as the Relation of it was to me afterwards.</p>
<pb n=”223″/>
All that Love cou’d say in such cases, being ended; and all the intermitting Irresolutions being adjusted, the Lovely, Young, and Ador’d Victim lays her self down, before the Sacrificer; while he, with a Hand resolv’d, and a Heart breaking within, gave the Fatal Stroke; first, cutting her Throat, and then severing her, yet Smiling, Face from that Delicate Body, pregnant as it was with Fruits of tend’ rest Love. As soon as he had done, he laid the Body decently on Leaves and Flowers; of which he made a Bed, and conceal’d it under the same cover-lid<note type=”gloss”> coverlet, blanket</note> of Nature; only her Face he left yet bare to look on: But when he found she was Dead, and past all Retrieve, never more<pb n=”224″/> to bless him with her Eyes, and soft Language; his Grief swell’d up to Rage; he Tore, he Rav’d he Roar’d, like some Monster of the Wood, calling on the lov’d Name of <hi>Imoinda;</hi> a thousand times he turn’d the Fatal Knife that did the Deed, toward his own Heart, with a Resolution to go immediately after her; but dire Revenge, which now was a thousand times more fierce in his Soul than before, prevents him; and he wou’d cry out, <hi>No; since I have sacrificed</hi> Imoinda <hi>to my Revenge, shall I loose that Glory which I have purchas’d so dear, as at the Price of the fairest, dearest, softest Creature that ever Nature made? No, no!</hi> Then, at her Name, Grief wou’d get the ascendant of Rage, and he wou’d<pb n=”225″/> lye down by her side, and water her Face with showers of Tears, which never were wont to fall from those Eyes: And however bent he was on his intended Slaughter, he had not power to stir from the Sight of this dear Object, now more Belov’d, and more Ador’d than ever.</p>
<p>He remain’d in this deploring Condition for two Days, and never rose from the Ground where he had made his sad Sacrifice; at last, rousing from her side, and accusing himself with living too long, now <hi>Imoinda</hi> was dead; and that the Deaths of those barbarous Enemies were deferr’d too long, he resolv’d now to finish the great Work; but offering to rise, he found his Strength so decay’d,<pb n=”226″/> that he reel’d to and fro, like Boughs assail’d by contrary Winds; so that he was forced to lye down again, and try to summons all his Courage to his Aid; he found his Brains turn round, and his Eyes were dizzy; and Objects appear’d not the same to him they were wont to do; his Breath was short; and all his Limbs surprised with a Faintness he had never felt before: He had not Eat in two Days, which was one occasion of this Feebleness, but excess of Grief was the greatest; yet still he hop’d he shou’d recover Vigour to act his Design; and lay expecting it yet six Days longer; still mourning over the dead Idol of his Heart, and striving every Day to rise, but cou’d not.</p>
<pb n=”227″/>
In all this time you may believe we were in no little affliction for <hi>Caesar,</hi> and his Wife; some were of Opinion he was escap’d never to return; others thought some Accident had hap’ned to him: But however, we fail’d not to send out an hundred People several ways to search for him; a Party, of about forty, went that way he took; among whom was <hi>Tuscan,</hi> who was perfectly reconcil’d to <hi>Byam;</hi> they had not gon very far into the Wood, but they smelt an unusual Smell, as of a dead Body; for Stinks must be very noisom that can be distinguish’d among such a quantity of Natural Sweets, as every Inch of that Land produces. So that they concluded they shou’d find him dead, or somebody that<pb n=”228″/> was so; they past on towards it, as Loathsom as it was, and made such a rusling among the Leaves that lye thick on the Ground, by continual Falling, that <hi>Caesar</hi> heard he was approach’d; and though he had, during the space of these eight Days, endeavor’d to rise, but found he wanted Strength, yet looking up, and seeing his Pursuers, he rose, and reel’d to a Neighbouring Tree, against which he fix’d his Back; and being within a dozen Yards of those that advanc’d, and saw him; he call’d out to them, and bid them approach no nearer, if they wou’d be safe: So that they stood still, and hardly believing their Eyes, that wou’d perswade them that it was <hi>Caesar</hi> that spoke to ’em, so much was he alter’d; <pb n=”229″/>they ask’d him, What he had done with his Wife? for they smelt a Stink that almost struck them dead. He, pointing to the dead Body, sighing, cry’d, <hi>Behold her there;</hi> they put off the Flowers that cover’d her with their Sticks, and found she was kill’d; and cry’d out, <hi>Oh Monster! that hast murther’d thy Wife:</hi> Then asking him, Why he did so cruel a Deed? He replied, he had no leasure to answer impertinent Questions; <hi>You may go back,</hi> continued he, <hi>and tell the Faithless Governor, he may thank Fortune that I am breathing my last; and that my Arm is too feeble to obey my Heart, in what it had design’d him:</hi> But his Tongue faultering, and trembling, he cou’d scarce end what he was saying. The <pb n=”230″/><hi>English</hi> taking Advantage by his Weakness, cry’d, <hi>Let us take him alive by all means:</hi> He heard ’em; and, as if he had reviv’d from a Fainting, or a Dream, he cry’d out, <hi>No, Gentlemen, you are deceiv’d; you will find no more</hi> Caesars <hi>to be Whipt; no more find a Faith in me: Feeble as you think me, I have Strength yet left to secure me from a second Indignity.</hi> They swore all a-new, and he only shook his Head, and beheld them with Scorn; then they cry’d out, <hi>Who will venture on this single Man? Will no body?</hi> They stood all silent while <hi>Caesar</hi> replied, <hi>Fatal will be the Attempt to the first Adventurer; let him assure himself,</hi> and, at that Word, held up his Knife in a menacing Posture, <hi>Look ye, ye faithless Crew,</hi> said he,<pb n=”231″/> <hi>’tis not Life I seek, nor am I afraid of Dying;</hi> and, at that Word, cut a piece of Flesh from his own Throat, and threw it at ’em, <hi>yet still I wou’d Live if I cou’d, till I had perfected my Revenge. But oh! it cannot be; I feel Life gliding from my Eyes and Heart; and, if I make not haste, I shall yet fall a Victim to the shameful Whip.</hi> At that, he rip’d up his own Belly; and took his Bowels and pull’d ’em out, with what Strength he cou’d; while some, on their Knees imploring, besought him to hold his Hand. But when they saw him tottering, they cry’d out, <hi>Will none venture on him?</hi> A bold <hi>English</hi> cry’d, <hi>Yes, if he were the Devil;</hi> (taking Courage when he saw him almost Dead) and swearing a horrid Oath for his farewell<pb n=”232″/> to the World; he rush’d on <hi>Caesar,</hi> with his Arm’d Hand met him so fairly, as stuck him to the Heart, and he fell Dead at his Feet. <hi>Tuscan</hi> seeing that, cry’d out, <hi>I love thee, oh</hi> Caesar; <hi>and therefore will not let thee Dye, if possible:</hi> And, running to him, took him in his Arms; but, at the same time, warding a Blow that <hi>Caesar</hi> made at his Bosom, he receiv’d it quite through his Arm; and <hi>Caesar</hi> having not the Strength to pluck the Knife forth, though he attempted it, <hi>Tuscan</hi> neither pull’d it out himself, nor suffer’d it to be pull’d out; but came down with it sticking in his Arm; and the reason he gave for it was, because the Air shou’d not get into the Wound: They put their Hands a-cross, and carried<pb n=”233″/> <hi>Caesar</hi> between Six of ’em, fainted as he was; and they thought Dead, or just Dying; and they brought him to <hi>Parham,</hi> and laid him on a Couch, and had the Chirurgeon immediately to him, who drest his Wounds, and sow’d up his Belly, and us’d means to bring him to Life, which they effected. We ran all to see him; and, if before we thought him so beautiful a Sight, he was now so alter’d, that his Face was like a Death’s Head black’d over; nothing but Teeth, and Eyeholes: For some Days we suffer’d no body to speak to him, but caused Cordials to be poured down his Throat, which sustained his Life; and in six or seven Days he recover’d his Senses: For, you must know, that <pb n=”234″/> Wounds are almost to a Miracle cur’d in the <hi>Indies;</hi> unless Wounds in the Legs, which rarely ever cure.</p>
<p>When he was well enough to speak, we talk’d to him; and ask’d him some Questions about his Wife, and the Reasons why he kill’d her; and he then told us what I have related of that Resolution, and of his Parting; and he besought us, we would let him Dye, and was extreamly Afflicted to think it was possible he might Live; he assur’d us, if we did not Dispatch him, he wou’d prove very Fatal to a great many. We said all we cou’d to make him Live, and gave him new Assurances; but he begg’d we wou’d not think so poorly of him, or of his love to <hi>Imoinda,</hi> to <pb n=”235″/>imagine we cou’d Flatter him to Life again; but the Chirurgeon assur’d him, he cou’d not Live, and therefore he need not Fear. We were all (but <hi>Caesar)</hi> afflicted at this News; and the Sight was gashly<note type=”gloss”> ghastly</note>; his Discourse was sad; and the earthly Smell about him so strong, that I was perswaded to leave the Place for some time; (being my self-but Sickly, and very apt to fall into Fits of dangerous Illness upon any extraordinary Melancholy) the Servants, and <hi>Trefry,</hi> and the Chirurgeons, promis’d all to take what possible care they cou’d of the Life of <hi>Caesar;</hi> and I, taking Boat, went with other Company to Colonel <hi>Martin</hi>’s, about three Days Journy down the River; but I was no sooner gon, but the<pb n=”236″/> <hi>Governor</hi> taking <hi>Trefry,</hi> about some pretended earnest Business, a Days Journy up the River; having communicated his Design to one <hi>Banister,</hi> a wild <hi>Irish</hi> Man<note type=”gloss”>Major James Bannister was responsible for negotiating with the Dutch when England ceded Surinam in 1667. According to Todd, in 1671, he led “about a hundred families to Jamaica where he joined forces with governor Sir Thomas Lynch who was trying to suppress a rival, backed by other ex-Surinam settlers” (Saunders Webb, 97). Bannister then became major-general of Jamaica. Bannister was killed in 1673 by Mr. Burford, a surveyor-general, who was then hanged.</note>, and one of the Council; a Fellow of absolute Barbarity, and fit to execute any Villany, but was Rich. He came up to <hi>Parham,</hi> and forcibly took <hi>Caesar,</hi> and had him carried to the same Post where he was Whip’d; and causing him to be ty’d to it, and a great Fire made before him, he told him, he shou’d Dye like a Dog, as he was. <hi>Caesar</hi> replied, this was the first piece of Bravery that ever <hi>Banister</hi> did; and he never spoke Sence till he pronounc’d that Word; and, if he wou’d keep it, he wou’d declare, in the other World, that he was<pb n=”237″/> the only Man, of all the Whites, that ever he heard speak Truth. And turning to the Men that bound him, he said, <hi>My Friends, am I to Dye, or to be Whip’d?</hi> And they cry’d, <hi>Whip’d! no; you shall not escape so well:</hi> And then he replied, smiling, <hi>A Blessing on thee;</hi> and assur’d them, they need not tye him, for he wou’d stand fixt, like a Rock; and indure Death so as shou’d encourage them to Dye. <hi>But if you Whip me,</hi> said he, <hi>be sure you tye me fast.</hi>
<p>He had learn’d to take Tobaco; and when he was assur’d he should Dye, he desir’d they would give him a Pipe in his Mouth, ready Lighted, which they did; and the Executioner came, and first cut off his Members,<pb n=”238″/> and threw them into the Fire; after that, with an ill-favoured Knife, they cut his Ears, and his Nose, and burn’d them; he still Smoak’d on, as if nothing had touch’d him; then they hack’d off one of his Arms, and still he bore up, and held his Pipe; but at the cutting off the other Arm, his Head sunk, and his Pipe drop’d; and he gave up the Ghost, without a Groan, or a Reproach. My Mother and Sister were by him all the while, but not suffer’d to save him; so rude and wild were the Rabble, and so inhumane were the Justices, who stood by to see the Execution, who after paid dearly enough for their Insolence. They cut <hi>Caesar</hi> in Quarters, and sent them to several of the chief<pb n=”239″/><hi>Plantations:</hi> One Quarter was sent to Colonel <hi>Martin,</hi> who refus’d it; and swore, he had rather see the Quarters of <hi>Banister,</hi> and the <hi>Governor</hi> himself, than those of <hi>Caesar,</hi> on his <hi>Plantations;</hi> and that he cou’d govern his <hi>Negroes</hi> without Terrifying and Grieving them with frightful Spectacles of a mangl’d King.</p>
<p>Thus Dy’d this Great Man; worthy of a better Fate, and a more sublime Wit than mine to write his Praise; yet, I hope, the Reputation of my Pen is considerable enough to make his Glorious Name to survive to all Ages; with that of the Brave, the Beautiful, and the Constant <hi>Imoinda.</hi>